Bombay Presidency 1805 1/5 Rupee -KM# 277
KM# 277 1/5 RUPEE
2.3200 g., Mint: Mumbai Obverse: Persian-Zarb, mint
name, Shah Alam (II) julus Reverse: “T” between scales
Note: Mint name: Mumbai, struck at Calicut for Tellicherry.
Mumbai finds mention in Mughal coins
Aurangzeb attacked Mumbai because the British challenged his authority by starting their own mint.
Mughal emperor Akbar’s gold mohar used as a pendant
Mumbai | 9th Nov 2013
Jahangir’s gold mohar and a coin depicting the symbol of the sun.
umbai was known as Mumbai even before the British named the city Bombay. Mughal emperor Aurangzeb had sent his army to attack Mumbai in 1693 because the British had started a mint there in an attempt to overrule his authority as India's emperor. A Mughal coin researcher, Dr Mahesh Kalra, 40, revealed these unknown facts to The Sunday Guardian.
Kalra, an assistant professor with the Alkesh Dinesh Mody Institute with the Mumbai University, is also the curator of a coins museum being run inside the institute's premises. He has studied the writing on the Mughal coins and plans to put all his studies together in the form of a book.
According to him, Mughal coins mentioned the city's name as Mumbai in Persian script. The East India Company started a mint in Mumbai in 1683 and minted coins in the names of English kings, again in Persian. When Aurangzeb came to know about this he felt threatened and ordered his lieutenant Siddhi Jouhar to attack Mumbai. The Mughals and the British clashed at today's Bhendi Bazaar in south Mumbai. Their rivalry did not end even after Aurangzeb's death in 1707. Emperor Farrukhsiyar started a series of coins called "Zarb Mumbai" (Strike Mumbai) to teach the British a lesson. These coins were in use until 1768.
Mughal emperor Akbar’s gold mohar used as a pendant
He said that Mughals minted coins called mohar or asharfi — rupee and paisa respectively —in gold, silver and copper. While a mohar weighed 11 gm, an ashrafi weighed 20 gm. "The emperors used to gift the gold coins to their nobles and ambassadors to show their prosperity. Some people made pendants of the gold coins and started wearing them. One can find these gold pendants with some families in Uttar Pradesh."
Kalra, a homeopath by profession, left his luminous practice of 12 years at the high profile Lokhandwala area in Andheri to study history. He completed his masters in numismatics and archaeology and studied Brahmi, India's most ancient script. He also learnt Greek and Persian so that he could understand the writing on the Mughal coins. He studied the coins and visited three prestigious coin museums — British Museum, Fitzwilliam Museum at the Cambridge University and the Ashmolean Museum at the Oxford University — to share his knowledge with the British. The British Museum selected him for International Training Program (ITP) for curators. Today, Kalra is among those few curators who are an authority on Mughal coins. He has also registered for doctorate on Mughal coins with Mumbai University. "I am trying to attract more and more people towards the coins museum. The coins not only reflect the currency pattern of the past but also shed light on the cultural and political situation then," Kalra said.
East India Company coins with brief history and Rulers
BOMBAY-MUMBAI-1700 SHOWING CHURCH AND DAILY LIFE-'CARRYING AN UMBRELLA WAS A STATUS SYMBOL
BOMBAY PORT AND FORT BEFORE 1700 -BELOW VIEW OF BOMBAY 1800
BAIA (BOMBAY IN PORTUGUESE)-16TH CENTURY ENGLISH FORT IN BOMBAY
VIEW OF BOMBAY FROM MALABAR HILL TOWARDS BOMBAY FORT/PORT.CHOWPTTY BEACH SEEN ON LEFT-[BELOW THE SAME VIEW NOW]
Pen and ink drawing of Sewri Fort in Bombay looking across to Trombay Island by William Miller (1795-1836) in 1828.The image is inscribed: 'Suree from below the Band hill. Bandalah. W.M. December 1828'.
view from inside Bombay fort towards church gate of the Bombay fort,at the end
first shop is patek watches
second shop is Times of India ,known as Bombay Times -1860
TAXISOF 1860 A PALKHEE(PALANQUIN)AND A HORSE CAN BE SEEN WAITING OUT SIDE ,TIMES OFFICE
This view of Churchgate Street, now known as Vir Nariman Road, inside the Fort area of Bombay was taken in the 1860s to form part of an album entitled 'Photographs of India and Overland Route'. Churchgate Street runs from Horniman Circle at the east end to what was originally named Marine Drive at the edge of the Back Bay. Churchgate Station, the old General Post Office (now the Telegraph Office) and the Cathedral Church of St Thomas, the oldest still-functioning structure in the city, are all located along its length. However, Churchgate Station and the Post Office were later additions to the street and would not have been in existence at the time of this photograph.
Government House, Parell.--Artist: Gonsalves, Jose M. (fl. 1826--c. 1842) Medium: Lithograph, coloured Date: 1833
Plate two from J. M. Gonsalves' "Views at Bombay". This building at Parel in Bombay was originally a Portuguese Franciscan friary, completed in 1673 and taken over by Governor Boone in 1719 as a country residence. In 1771, when Hornby first resided here, it became the new Government House in place of the original one in the Fort area. The banqueting hall and ballroom were housed in the shell of the original vaulted chapel. In 1899 the Plague Research Laboratory founded by W M Haffkine was established here. Since 1925 it has been known as the Haffkine Institute and the original grounds now contain a number of medical institutions.
[BRITISH WERE PROTESTANT CHRISTIANS AND WHEN THEY TOOK OVER BOMBAY FROM CATHOLIC PORTUGUESE A LOT OF CATHOLIC CHURCHES WERE DESTROYED FOR EG:ONE OPPOSITE CHURCHGATE OF THE FORT ;MANY CATHOLIC INSTITUTIONS WERE CONVERTED FOR OTHER USES ,AS IS THE BUNGALOW ABOVE]
General view of the exterior of the Times of India offices, Mumbai by E.O.S. and Company, 1890. This print is from an album put together for the occasion of the newspaper's Diamond Jubilee (60 years) which was celebrated in November 1898. The newspaper was established in the 1830s following Lord Metcalfe's Act of 1835 which removed restrictions on the liberty of the Indian press. On the 3rd November 1838 the 'Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce' was launched in bi-weekly editions, on Saturdays and Wednesdays. It contained news of Europe, America and the sub-continent and was conveyed between India and Europe via regular steam ships. From 1850 the paper appeared in daily editions and in 1861 the 'Bombay Times' became the 'Times of India'. By the end of the 19th century the paper employed 800 people and had a wide circulation in India and Europe.
coins and more: Did you know Series (15) : ii) Fort St. George ...
Did you know Series (15) : ii) Fort St. George Chennai Museum (Part II): i) Setting up of the First English Mint at Fort St. George , Madras in 1640 and its minting activity . ii) Coins of the Arcot Nawabs. iii) Coins of the Bengal and Bombay Presidencies. iv) Coins of the Mughals, Nayaks,Travancore State and Mysore State.
Did you know Series (15) : Fort St. George Chennai Museum (Part II):
i) Setting up of the First English Mint at Fort St. George , Madras in 1640 and its minting activity .
ii) Coins of the Arcot Nawabs.
iii) Coins of the Bengal and Bombay Presidencies.
iv) Coins of the Mughals, Nayaks,Travancore State and Mysore State.
i) Setting up of the First English Mint at Fort St. George , Madras in 1640 and its minting activity:
- The “firman” (Royal Charter/Edict) granted to the East India Company by the Nayak Ruler Venkatdri Nayak in 1639 gave the Company the privileges of minting their own coins, in perpetuity.
- In 1640 the first English Mint in India was established by Francis Day at Fort St. George. The mint was run on contract by various “Dubashes”, but the gold and other precious metals were imported from England by the East India Company.
- By the 1650s the Company on finding various irregularities in the mint functioning, decided to take over the running of the Mint itself and English Supervisors were appointed to oversee the process of coin minting.
- The Madras Mint struck coins for territories in and around the Company’s territories and the Northern Circars for nearly 200 years since its setting up.
- The initial coinage issued were dump coins Southern Hindu territories followed by close imitations of the Mughal coins of the Subah of Arcot.
- In 1692, the Mint obtained permission to mint silver coins (rupees) for the Mughals.
- In 1695, to cater to the growing demands on the Fort St. George Mint a bigger facility was built in the Fort.
- Around 1670, the earliest coins issued for the East India Company were small silver pieces. These coins were undated with two interlinked “C’s” to indicate the reign of King Charles II.
- During the 18th century, silver coins were minted bearing the East India Company’s bale mark (an orb and a cross) inscribed C.C.E. (Charter Company of England) and G.C.E. (Governor and Company of Merchants Trading into the East Indies). All these issues were meant for use within the Company’s Factory and surrounding Areas and for exchange with European Traders. They coins were, therefore not meant for circulation in the Territories governed by the Indian Rulers.
- In 1742, a second mint was established at Chintradipet. In the same year, the Madras Mint was given a contract by Nawab Sadatulla Khan of the Subah of Arcot to strike the Arcot Rupee and Arcot coins of smaller denominations. These coins were poorly struck with Dies bigger than the blanks used. Hence only a part of the inscriptions are seen on these coins. These coins bear the name of Alamgir II with the Sixth year of reign and have a “Lotus Mint Mark”. This undated series continued for about 50 years. Subsequent issues had the Hijri date “1172” equivalent to 1758 A.D. irrespective of the Year of minting.
- In 1792, the Chintradipet Mint was relocated to Fort St. George and the two mints became the gold and silver mints and were well conversant with minting star pagodas (which replaced the Madras pagoda), Arcot Rupees and Madras and Arcot fanams and doudous (or Doodoos).
- In 1807, minting machines based on the best available technology of the time, imported from Britain was introduced and began producing silver coins in European style with oblique milling.
- One series of coins minted at the Madras Mint was based on Hindu standard coinages consisted of one and two Pagodas in gold, half and quarter pagodas and fanams in silver. The copper coins consisted of Cash denominations.
- Another series was based on the Mughal Empire coinage with gold mohurs and fractions of mohurs, i.e. half, one-third, and quarter mohurs.
- Also rupee series including one rupee, half rupee, quarter rupee, one-eighth rupee and one-sixteenth rupee in silver was issued by the Madras Mints which also minted coins in the denomination of two rupees. The copper coins were of lower denominations and included 4, 2 and 1 paise and 4 and 2 pies (the copper coins were also denominated as half and one dub or one-ninety sixth and one-forty eighth of a rupee.
- The copper coins also included Faloos (Dub), with inscriptions in Persian on one side and Tamil and Telugu inscriptions on the other side indicating its value in Dub units.
- The coins in circulation had unrelated denominational values and their exchange values were briefly as under:
3360 Cash was equal to 42 Fanam
42 Fanams were equal to I Pagoda
1 Pagoda was equal to 3 ½ Rupees
3 ½ Rupees was equal to 168 Faloos (Dub)
1 Rupee was equal to 48 Faloos (Dub)
1 Faloos (Dub) was equal to 20 Cash
1 Fanam was equal to 4 Faloos (Dub)
4 Faloos was equal to 80 Cash
- After 1818, the Rupee was made a Standard coin with a fixed weight of 180 grains and lower denominations being proportionately reduced in weight.
- From 1812 to 1835, the Madras Mint struck coins with the “Lotus” mint mark and indented cord milling, while Calcutta Mint issued coins with the “Rose” mint mark from 1823 -1835.
- Interestingly, from 1830 to 1835 (before the introduction of the Standard Coinage, Calcutta mint struck coins with a Rose mint mark but with a small crescent added on the reverse (rupee and half rupee coins) and on obverse (1/4 rupee coins).
The Madras Mints pass into history :
- The Fort St. George Mints lost their prominence when the two bigger mints were opened at Calcutta and later in Mumbai and the Uniform Coinage was introduced in 1835. Nevertheless, initially the Madras Mints assisted the Mints at Calcutta and Bombay with Uniform Coinage issues, but their coinage output was relatively small and they shut shop in 1869 and closed down.
After Musalipatnam, the next settlement in south was in Madras in 1620. The trading activities grew at a very rapid rate there. They purchased land where the Fort St. George stands today and the First English Mint was established in 1640 by one Francis day.
The firman granted to the East India Company by Venkatdri Naik in 1639 permitted it to "perpetually enjoy the privilege of mintage." This mint was run on contract by various dubashes - Komati Chetties all - but used gold imported by the Company. In the 1650s, the Company decided it would run the mint itself and appointed English supervisors.
The Madras mint struck coins for in and around the company's territories in for the Northern Circars for nearly 200 years. The initial coins were dump coinage similar to those of the neighboring Hindu territories followed by close imitations of the Moghul coins of the Subah of Arcot.
In 1692, the mint was permitted to mint the silver rupees of the Mughals. A new mint was built in the Fort in 1695, and then rebuilt in 1727 in the northwest corner of the Fort, by what became known as the Mint Bastion. In 1742, a second mint was established in Chintadripet. The same year, the Fort mint was permitted to strike the Arcot rupee and Arcot coins of lower denominations. In 1792, the Chintadripet mint was moved to the Fort and the two mints became the gold and silver mints, minting star pagodas, which were replacing the Madras Pagodas, Arcot rupees and Madras and Arcot Fanams and doodoos.
The Company decided to establish two bigger mints at Bombay and Calcutta in 1815. From 1835 - 1867 the mint also struck uniform coinage for circulation. The Madras mint assisted these mints and since its capacity was insignificant, the mint was finally closed down in 1869 to make way for the government press in the same premises. But Mint Street - once Thanga Salai - remains a Madras name.
Coins : Madras Presidency
Early Coins: Dump Coins
The earliest coins of the company in Madras were small silver pieces issued from their factory at Fort St. George in about 1670's. These coins were undated with two interlinked C's on the reverse (assigned to the reign of King Charles II).
During the 18th century silver coins were minted bearing the Company's bale mark (an orb and a cross) inscribed C.C.E (Charter Company of England) and in some cases G.C.E (Governor and company of merchants trading into the East Indies). All these issues were meant for use within the company's factory and surrounding areas and also for exchange with European traders. They were not meant for circulation in the interior of the country.
In 1742 company obtained permission from Nawab Sadatulla Khan of the Subah of Arcot to coin rupees in imitation of those struck at the imperial mint at Arcot. These coins were poorly struck with dies bigger than the blanks used. Hence, only a part of inscriptions are generally visible. They bear the name of Alamgir II with Sixth year of reign and have a 'Lotus - Mint mark'. This undated series continued for about 50 years. Subsequent issues had Hegira Date '1172' equivalent to 1758 A.D. irrespective of the year of minting. The R.Y-6 also appears on all issues.
Machine Struck Coins
In 1807 new machinery was introduced and mint produced 2 silver coins in European style with oblique milling. One series based on Hindu standard consisted of One and Two pagoda in gold, Half and Quarter pagoda and Fanams in silver. The copper coins consisted on Cash denominations.
The other series based on Moghul standard were gold mohurs and fractions of mohurs: ¼, ⅓ and ½. They issued rupees together with fractions down to ⅛ and 1⁄16 rupee in silver. Madras also issued 2 rupees coins. Although minted in 1807 and later all bear the frozen date “1172”A.H.
Copper coins in this series were Faluce (Dub) with inscriptions in Persian on one side and Tamil and Telugu inscriptions on the other side indicating the value in Dub units.
In Madras, there were copper coins for 2, 4 pies, 1, 2 and 4 paisa, with the first two denominated as ½ and 1 dub or 1⁄96 and 1⁄48 rupee. Madras also issued the Madras Fanam until 1815.
Although the two systems of coins were in circulation at the same time but they were unrelated.
3360 Cash = 42 Fanams = 1 Pagoda =31/2 Rupees = 168 Faluce (Dub)
1 Rupee = 48 Faluce (Dub)
1 Faluce (Dub) = 20 Cash; 1 Fanam = 4 Faluce (Dub) = 80 Cash
After 1818, Rupee was made the standard coin and the weight was fixed at 180 grains with smaller pieces in proportion. The pagodas and Fanams were demonetized from that year.
Next issues were:-
1. 1812-1835: Struck at Madras Mint with 'Lotus' mint mark and indented cord milling.
2. 1823-1825: Struck at Calcutta with 'Rose' mint mark and upright milling.
3. 1830-1835: Struck at Calcutta with 'Rose' mint mark and upright milling but with a small crescent added on the reverse (rupee and half rupee coins) and on obverse (1/4 rupee coins).
The Northern Circars was a former division of Madras Presidency and consisted of present-day Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. The territory derived its name from Circar or Sarkar, an Indian term applied to the component parts of a Subah or province, each of which is administered by a deputy governor. These Northern Circars were five in number, Chicacole, Rajahmundry, Ellore, Kondapalli and Guntur.
By a treaty, signed in 1768, the nizam acknowledged the validity of Shah Alam's grant and resigned the Circars to the Company, receiving as a mark of friendship an annuity of 50,000. Guntur, as the personal estate of the Nizam's brother Basalat Jang, was accepted during his lifetime under both treaties. Finally, in 1823, the claims of the Nizam over the Northern Circars were bought outright by the Company, and they became a British possession.
The Northern Circars were governed as part of Madras Presidency until India's independence in 1947, after which the presidency became India's Madras state. The northern, Telugu-speaking portion of Madras state, including the Northern Circars, was detached in 1953 to form the new state of Andhra Pradesh.
Coins for use of Northern Circars division of the Madras Presidency with headquarters at Musalipatnam were:-
SILVER: 4 Annas and 2 Annas
COPPER: 1/48 Rupee and 1/96 Rupee
Old Mint - Kolkata 1700'S
Caroline Newton of Baldwin's forwarded this press release about a new book on the coins of the Bengal Presidency. -EditorCaroline adds:
It is the first of three volumes written by Dr. Paul Stevens that document the coins of the East India Company. The first volume explores the coins and mints of the Bengal Presidency from 1757, when the EIC first acquired the right to mint coins there, until 1835, when a uniform coinage was introduced into British India. The three volumes will, without doubt, become the new industry reference works.THE COINAGE OF THE HON. EAST INDIA COMPANY – PART 1 THE COINS OF THE BENGAL PRESIDENCY
Dr. Paul Stevens first book, ‘The Coins of the Bengal Presidency’ is an essential reference work for anyone interested in this period of Indian history, British colonial history and East India Company coinage. The first of a planned three part series on the coins of the East India Company, this will be the new standard reference work for the next generation of numismatists.
Written by the highly respected numismatist Dr. Paul Stevens who became interested in Indian coinage during the 1970’s and was particularly fascinated by the coins which were produced by the British for use in India, the book is a result of many hours spent poring over primary source documents in the British Library. It explores the coins and mints of the Bengal Presidency from 1757, when the EIC first acquired the right to mint coins there, until 1835, when a uniform coinage was introduced into British India.
Divided into ten chapters, each one deals with a different time or location of the coinage. Each chapter then consists of a short summary followed by a very detailed exploration of the information found mainly in the archives of the EIC. This part contains extensive archival extracts, which should prove useful to both numismatists and historians studying the EIC. Next, (within each chapter,) there is a detailed catalogue of the coins discussed within that chapter, and finally there is a list of references that will ensure that the original sources can easily be found.
At the end of the book there are some useful appendices: an AH/AD/RY concordance; a glossary of Indian words and abbreviations found in the extracts from the records; a concordance of Pridmore numbers with the Stevens catalogue numbers; and the mint names and rulers’ names as they actually appear on the coins. Many other fascinating pieces of information could also be mentioned but they are all in the book and that is where they should be sought.
Baldwin’s is delighted to be offering 142 lots of British Indian coins from the collection once formed by Dr. Stevens in their 3rd November Argentum auction. Lots 230 – 372 from the catalogue contain a variety of beautiful coins from the Madras, Bombay and Bengal presidencies, including lot 340 (pictured here) a 1794, Gilt Proof 2-Pice.
The Coins of the Bengal Presidency, published by Baldwin’s, is priced at £50 plus postage and can be ordered through the Baldwin’s website at www.baldwin.co.uk . The catalogue for the Baldwin’s Autumn Argentum auction with full listing of all 142 coins can be found online at www.baldwin.co.uk/a312
Wayne Homren, Editor
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