Sunday, July 13, 2008

FIRST TRAIN IN INDIA 1853 and other 1860 trains

SEE:-      The name "Dadar" signifies a small stairway built on the eastern edge of Mahim Island;::--http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.in/2010/12/name-dadar-signifies-small-stair


BOMBAY TO TANNA(THANA)THE FIRST STEAM ENGINE PULLED TRAIN TOOK ONE HOUR








   SEE:-STORY AND HISTORY OF -INDIAN TRAINS AFTER INDEPENDENCE :-http://pazhayathu.blogspot.in/2010/08/story-and-history-of-indian-trains.html

            The Rewari Steam Locomotive Shed of the Northern Railwayshttp://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.in/2012/12/the-rewari-steam-locomotive-shed-of.html


Dapoorie_viaduct_bombay1855.jpgThe bridge was completed in 1854 and linked Bombay Island with the mainland of Thane.


Thull Ghat Station, Indian Peninsular Railway, 1866

 



East Indian Railway: Sursuttee Bridge, Viaduct, 1853

 



 

Gt Indian Peninsula Railway: accident, print, 1869


Sketches, Indian Railway: Engineers camp , 1857


East Indian Railway opening: Burdwan Station, 1855

 SEE:---Railways Photo Gallery --- bbu-2009

Indian Railway picture gallery

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http://irfca.org/~shankie/nrm/f.jpg

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Indian Railway History


The novel plan for the introduction of a rail system, transformed the whole history of India. This innovative plan was first proposed in 1832; however no auxiliary actions were taken for over a decade. In the year 1844, private entrepreneurs were allowed to launch a rail system by Lord Hardinge, who was the Governor-General of India. By the year 1845, two companies were formed and the East India Company was requested to support them in the matter.

The credit from the UK investors led to the hasty construction of a rail system over the next few years. On 22nd Dec' 1851, the first train came on the track to carry the construction material at Roorkee in India. With a passage of one and a half years, the first passenger train service was introduced between Bori Bunder, Bombay and Thana on the providential date 16th Apr' 1853. This rail track covered a distance of 34 kms (21 miles). Ever since its origin, the rail service in India never turned back.

The British Government approached private investors and persuaded them to join the race with a system that would promise an annual return of 5% during the early years of operation. Once finished, the company would be transferred under the Government ownership, yet the operational control will be enjoyed by the original company. In 1880, the rail network acquired a route mileage of about 14,500 km (9,000 miles), mostly working through Bombay, Madras and Calcutta (three major port cities).

By 1895, India had started manufacturing its own locomotives. In no time, different kingdoms assembled their independent rail systems and the network extended to the regions including Assam, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh. In 1901, a Railway Board was formed though the administrative power was reserved for the Viceroy, Lord Curzon. The Railway Board worked under the guidance of the Deptt of Commerce and Industry. It was comprised of three members - a Chairman, a Railway Manager and an Agent respectively.

For the very first time in its history, the Railways instigated to draw a neat profit. In 1907, most of the rail companies were came under the government control. Subsequently, the first electric locomotive emerged in the next year. During the First World War, the railways were exclusively used by the British. In view of the War, the condition of railways became miserable. In 1920, the Government captured the administration of the Railways and the linkage between the funding of the Railways and other governmental revenues was detached.

With the Second World War, the railways got incapacitated since the trains were diverted to the Middle East. On the occasion of India's Independence in 1947, the maximum share of the railways went under the terrain of Pakistan. On the whole, 42 independent railway systems with thirty-two lines were merged in a single unit and were acknowledged as Indian Railways. The existing rail networks were forfeited for zones in 1951 and 6 zones were formed in 1952. With 1985, the diesel and electric locomotives took the place of steam locomotives. In 1995, the whole railway reservation system was rationalized with computerization.



http://farm1.static.flickr.com/83/265815446_492230fe40.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/44/M2-162_Indian_Railway_Museum.jpg



http://mikes.railhistory.railfan.net/imfile/08260.jpg

http://mikes.railhistory.railfan.net/imfile/08270.jpg



old railbus photoIndia Amazing Train Routes


http://i.telegraph.co.uk/telegraph/multimedia/archive/01389/india-train_1389099c.jpg



http://www.discoverasia.com.au/images/editor_images/china/india-train.jpg

Indian Railway is certainly the 'Lifeline of the Nation' with its commendable performance since the last 150 years. Indian Railways is known to be the largest railway network in Asia and world's largest railway system under a single management. IR employs about 1.6 million people, making itself the second largest commercial or utility employer in the world.

IR boasts of more than 7,500 railway stations in its periphery. It has a fleet of not less than 7800 locomotives, 40,000 coaches & 3,26,000 wagons. 9 pairs of Rajdhani and 13 pairs of Shatabdi Express Trains run on the rail tracks of India. In 1977, the National Rail Museum was established at New Delhi. Given here is a list providing some interesting and amazing facts about Indian Railways.

Indian Railways Interesting Facts

First Passenger Train Ran On: 16th April 1853 (between Bombay to Thane)
First Railway Bridge: Dapoorie Viaduct on the Mumbai-Thane route
First Rail Tunnel: Parsik Tunnel
First Ghats Covered by Rail Lines: Thal and Bhore Ghats
First Underground Railway: Calcutta METRO
First Computerized Reservation System Started In: New Delhi (1986)
First Electric Train Ran On: 3rd Feb' 1925 (between Bombay VT and Kurla)
Toilets on Trains Introduced In: 1891 (1st Class) & 1907 (lower classes)
Shortest Station Name: Ib (Orissa)
Longest Station Name: Sri Venkatanarasimharajuvariapeta (Tamil Nadu)
Busiest Railway Station: Lucknow (64 trains everyday)
Longest Run (Time): Himsagar Express (3751 km in 74 hrs and 55 min)
Shortest Run: Route between Nagpur and Ajni (3km)
Longest Run for Daily Train: Kerala Express (3054 km in 42.5 hrs)
Longest Non-Stop Run (Distance): Trivandrum Rajdhani (528 km in 6.5 hrs)
Longest Railway Platform in the World: Kharagpur (2,733 ft in length)
Longest Railway Bridge: Nehru Setu on Sone River (10044ft in length)
Longest Tunnel: Karbude Tunnel of the Konkan Railway (6.5 km)
Oldest Preserved Locomotive: Fairy Queen (1855), still in working order
Gauges of Track: 4 Gauges; BG (5'6"), MG (1 metre), NG (2)
IR Daily Runs: About 14,000 trains
IR Daily Carries: More than 11 million passengers & 1 million tonnes of freight
IR's Only Line with Rack & Pinion System: From Mettupalayam to Conoor
IR's Fastest Train: Bhopal-Shatabdi (runs at a speed up to 140 Km/ph)
Railway Station with all the Three Gauges: Siliguri Railway Station
Route Kilometers of Track: More than 62,000 kms
People Employed in IR: About 1.6 million people
Train with Maximum Number of Halts: Howrah-Amritsar Express (115 halts)
Trains without Commercial Halts: Sampoorna Kranti Express, Howrah Rajdhani, Bombay Rajdhani, Pragati Express and Pune Shatabdi
Stations across State Lines: Navapur (Maharashtra and Gujarat), Bhawani Mandi (Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan)
Classes of Travel on Indian Railway: Ist AC, 2nd AC, 3rd AC, AC Chair Car 2nd sleeper & 2nd ordinary

1853 BOMBAY -THE FIRST TRAIN-INDIA










"Railway from Calcutta to Delhi--baggage train passing the fortress of Rhotas," from the Illustrated London News, 1851;


"An Indian railway station," from the Illustrated London News, 1854;




"Opening of the Madras railway," from the Illustrated London News, 1856


*"Opening of the East Indian Railway--the Burdwan Station," from the Illustrated London News, 1855*






"SanthaL Rebellion: Affray between Railway Engineers and Santhals," Illustrated London News, 1856


A SIMILAR PHOTO FROM USA OF THAT SAME PERIOD BELOW:-

 

Cheyenne Indians attacking a working party on the Union Pacific Railroad




"Engineer's camp, on the East Indian Railway," from the Illustrated London News, 1857






*"Accident on the East Indian railway between Ahmoodpore and Rampore," from the Illustrated London News, 1863*


*"The Bhore Ghaut incline" (a very taxing track engineering feat), from the Illustrated London News, 1867*


The track loop: trains climbed up to Darjeeling, then turned around and headed back down; an albumen print, c.1870

*another view of the Darjeeling track loop, c.1880's*;

another Darjeeling railway scene, c.1890's*

*a railway bridge near Darjeeling, c.1890's*




"Embarkation of artillery in railway trains in India"*


FIRST TRAIN IN INDIA 1853-bombay- and other 1860 to 1900 trains:-

http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.in/2011/09/first-train-in-india-1853-bombay-and.html


100 Year Old Unseen Photos: Days of the Raj

 photo

A view of the passenger carriages. A company logo is just visible on the left: "North Western Railway."
Check out the set if you want to catch up on the full story so far.

 Elephants were widely used instead of engines - due to engine shortage and easier maneuverability of elephants.
Elephants were widely used instead of engines – due to engine shortage and easier maneuverability of elephants.

Elephant shunting a train on the Bengal-Nagpur railway. Picture quality makes it probably from WWII period.
Elephant shunting a train on the Bengal-Nagpur railway. Picture quality makes it probably from WWII period.


OLD FAITHFUL: An 80-year-old elephant shunting a Railway boxcar in 1945 , Picture courtesy - The Times of India, Dated 27th February, 2010
OLD FAITHFUL: An 80-year-old elephant shunting a Railway boxcar in 1945


Extract from A history of modern India, 1480-1950 By Claude Markovits, page 433. Click on picture for larger text.
Extract from A history of modern India, 1480-1950 By Claude Markovits, page 433. Click on picture for larger text.

Indian Railways – The British Legacy

  . Facing problems at home and abroad, the significant British interest in India was extraction of remaining wealth in Indian hands.
Indian Railway system too suffered  from this approach.  Especially after WWI, the Great Depression  and the currency crisis, starved of investments and renewal, Indian railways suffered.

During WW2, nearly 40% rolling stock from India was diverted to the Middle East. More than 50% of the track system was the outdated metre gauge and narrow gauge. Track systems were nearly a century old. 40% of the railway system went to Pakistan. 32 of the forty-two separate railway systems operating in India, were owned by the former Indian princely states. More than 8000 outdated steam engines were used as motive power – and less than 20 diesel locomotives were in use. Apart from elephants and people – called as ‘hand-shunting’ in Indian Railways lingo.

So much for the British gift of railways to India.
 NAPOLEON CALLED  ENGLAND AS THE "SHOP KEEPER OF THE WORLD"-[PROFIT FIRST PROFIT LAST WAS THEIR MOTTO; TILL THEY LEFT INDIA IN 1947]
The railways run by the Indian princely states became party to the collusive price fixing systems. Like this extract (linked to the right) shows, all the business went to the British engineering yards. To this add the guaranteed returns systems, and what was achieved was something else.
“The guarantee system did not encourage cost control, and, at an average cost of BP18,000 per mile, the Indian railways were some of the costliest in the world. Starved of investments and maintenance, the railways infrastructure at the time of British departure was crumbling
 In 1952, it was decided that IIIrd class passengers deserved fans and light. It took another 7 years to implement this decision. Elephants used for shunting wagons, box-cars, finally got a respite after WDS-4B shunters were introduced by Chittaranjan Locomotive Works in 1969. In the 1977,3rd class railway travel was abolished. Wooden-slat seats were abolished. Cushioned 2nd class seating system was made minimum and standard. It took India 40 years, to modernize the colonial railway system, we should be thankful. Remember, they could have uprooted the rails, and taken away the wagons and engines. After all, Indian Railways was the biggest scrap iron collection in the world at that time.

========================================================

Early American steam locomotive 

Photo: Early American (Jervis) Steam Locomotive Photo ­- Blumenberg Associates LLC

[1]]FIRST TRAIN IN INDIA 1853-bombay- and other 1860 to 1900 trains:http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.in/2011/09/first-train-in-india-1853-bombay-and.html

[2]1934-FIRST AIR CONDITIONED TRAIN[ Frontier Mail ] IN INDIA USED ICE BLOCKS TO COOL THE TRAIN . VINTAGE BOMBAY TRAINS:-http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.in/2011/02/bombay-to-ajmer-train-1908.html

============================================================[3]
Welcome to Indian Railwayshttp://www.wr.indianrailways.gov.in/view_section.jsp?lang=0&id=0,1,264
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-[4]Welcome to Indian Railwayshttp://www.nr.indianrailways.gov.in/view_section.jsp?lang=0&id=0,1,264

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
[5]   Double head railway engine 1880-at victoria dock[renamed Indira Dock in January 1972]   Construction:-http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.in/2013/01/double-head-railway-engine-1880-at.html

[6]THE INDIAN RAIWAY FAN CLUB http://irfca.org/faq/faq-hist.html

[7]Industrial Locomotives of South Asia (ILSA)-/http://irfca.org/docs/locolists/industrial/

[8]Patiala State Monorail Trainways:-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patiala_State_Monorail_Trainways


[9]Bombay Railway History Group http://bombayrailway.blogspot.in/


[10]RAILWAY POSTAL SERVICE PHOTOS:-http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.in/2013/07/railway-postal-service-photos.html

[11]Locomotive Manufacturers, Components & Repair:-





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    East India Rail OF the East India Company
    It was but natural that the East India Company should seek a base in Bengal. With the decline in the Mughal empire, the Company increasingly grew more powerful, until it replaced Mughal rule completely. While Delhi or Agra had been the political capital of the Mughals, Bengal's commercial importance meant that Calcutta became the capital city from where the East India Company traded and ruled.

    With the setting up of the East India Rail, closer links emerged between Calcutta and Delhi and made trade and commerce easier. Between 1882 to 1866, the East India Rail (which originally connected Calcutta to Varanasi) was extended up to Delhi and Agra.

    I found this interesting map of the East India Rail, and how it progressed from Calcutta to Delhi, via Varanasi (the rail station in Varanasi is called Mughal-serai, and it was one of the many points along the Grand Trunk Road where the Mughals has built inns).



    And here is a photo of the very first train that ran on the East India Railway.


















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