Wednesday, January 19, 2011

1945 TSUNAMI IN BOMBAY FOLLOWING THE - 28 November 1945 Makran Mw 8.1 Earthquake .An unresolved problem with this earthquake, however, is that although a minor tsunami was caused by the earthquake, the damaging tsunami occurred 2-3 hours later both near the epicenter and at Karachi

On 28 November 1945,  an 8.1 magnitude earthquake was generated  in  the northern Arabian  Sea off the Makran  coast (Berninghausen, 1966; Quittmeyer and
Jacob, 1979; Ambraseys and Melville, 1982). The earthquake was felt in Karachi, Pakistan, where ground motions (figure 2) lasted approximately 30 seconds, stopping  the clock  in  the Karachi Municipality  Building  and interrupting  the communication  cable link  between  Karachi and  Muscat  off Pakistan's Makran Coast (Balochistan) generated a destructive tsunami in the Northern Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. More than 4,000 people were killed along the Makran Coast of Pakistan by both the earthquake and the tsunami.


The tsunami reached a height of 17m(50 feet) in some Makran ports and caused great
damage to the entire coastal region. A good  number of people were washed away. The
tsunami was also recorded at Muscat and Gwadar.


The damage from the earthquake was great, but the greatest destruction to the region was caused by  the tsunami that was generated. Tsunami waves "swept the whole of the Arabian Sea coast" .
The fishing village of Khudi, Pakistan and  its entire population, 48  km west of Karachi, was swept away.
   Tsunami has been observed in the North Indian Ocean on the Iranian coast    

An unresolved problem with this earthquake, however, is that although a minor tsunami was caused by the earthquake, thedamaging tsunami occurred 2-3 hours later both near the epicenter and at Karachi
INDIA - Tsunami waves as high as 11.0 to 11.5 m(30 feet) struck the Kutch region of Gujarat, on the west coast of India. There was extensive destruction and loss of life. Eyewitnesses reported that the tsunami came in like a fast rising tide.


The tsunami reached as far south as Mumbai. Bombay Harbor, Versova (Andheri), Haji Ali (Mahalaxmi), Juhu (Ville Parle) and Danda (Khar). In Mumbai the height of the tsunami was 2 meters. Fifteen (15) persons were washed away. 


According to reports the first wave was observed at 8:15am (local time) on Salsette Island in Mumbai (3). There was no report on damage at Bombay Harbor.




Five people died at Versova (Andheri, Mumbai), and six more at Haji Ali (Mahalaxmi, Mumbai), Several fishing boats were torn off their moorings at Danda and Juhu.

Some recorded tsunamis in India:















Date
Location


1524


1762

1819
1847
1881
1883
1941
1945
 
Near Dabhol, MaharashtraAn earthquake occurred during 1524 A.D. off the coast of Dabhol, Maharashtra and. a resulting large tsunami caused considerable alarm to the Portuguese fleet that was assembled in the area (Bendick and Bilham, 1999).
West Bengal and Orissa due to quake at Arakan Coast, Myanmar
West coast of India due to quake at Rann of Kutch, Gujarat
Great Nicobar Island
Car Nicobar Island
On the east coast, due to Krakatoa eruption
On the east coast due to eruptions at Andaman Islands
On the west coast of India including Mumbai due to a quake at Merkan Coast, Baluchistan




                         Other Earthquake Effects
Reports by S.M. Mathur and D.N. Wadia (pertaining to the Geology of India) mention that the earthquake caused the eruption of a mud volcano a few miles off the Makran Coast of Pakistan. This eruption formed four small islands. It was reported that a large volume of gas emitted at one of these islands ;sent flames "hundreds of meters" into the sky.
Such mud volcanoes are not uncommon in the Sindh region of the Makran coast. 
Their presence indicates the existence of high petroleum deposits. They are known to discharge flammable gases such as methane, ethane and traces of other hydrocarbons

Thus, the flames that were observed following the eruption of one of the mud volcanoes resulted from emitted natural gas, which caught fire after the earthquake.





The India tectonic plate has been drifting and moving in a north/northeast direction, for millions of years colliding with the Eurasian tectonic plate and forming the Himalayan Mountains.
(USGS graphic showing the migration of the Indian tectonic plate)


 


Satellite photo of a section of the Makran rugged and tectonic coastline showing uplifted terraces, headlands, sandy beaches, mud flats, rocky cliffs, bays and deltas. Numerous mud volcanoes are present along the shores.
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High tides recently cut off the Boca Grande section of Cartagena, in Colombia. Scientists say Latin American cities are at higher risk because sea levels will rise most near the equator.

                            HIGH TIDES OVER FLOWING ON TO ROAD ;IN CARTAGENA CITY,COLOMBIA
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Potential[future] Tsunami Generating Sources Along the Makran Seismic Zone and Bombay
A factor that could contribute to the destructiveness of a tsunami along the Makran coastline would be the relatively large astronomical tide, which is about 10-11 feet.

A tsunami generated during high tide

High tide

would be significantly more destructive; FOR mumbai CITY.



LATEST NEWS:-Magnitude 7.2 earth quake in - SOUTHWESTERN PAKISTAN ---2011 January 18

HIGH TIDE +TSUNAMI


                           
Tsunamis
  • A tsunami is a series of waves - the first may not be the largest
  • Wave heights cannot be predicted and can vary along a coast due to local effects
  • The time from one tsunami wave to the next can be five minutes to an hour
Tsunami warnings were issued for coastal areas across the Pacific basin - from Hawaii to Chile - as a result of the waves triggered by the Japan earthquake.
This map shows the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center's "tsunami forecast model" of wave heights above normal sea level across the region and how long after the 0546 GMT earthquake they were expected.
Estimated arrival times and amplitude of tsunami waves
Japan quake seventh largest in history

The monster 8.9-magnitude earthquake which hit Japan was the country's biggest ever and the seventh largest on record, according to US Geological Survey data.
Here are the largest magnitude earthquakes in history, according to the USGS website:
9.5, Chile, May 5, 1960
A quake off the coast of southern Chile killed more than 1,600 people and left 2,000,000 homeless.

Areas affected by quake 

More than 300 dead and more than 500 are feared missing in the massive earthquake that struck Japan on Friday, March 11, 2011. There has been widespread loss to infrastructure, the coastal areas of Japan being the worst affected.

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Tsunami South Asia
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The city-based Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), which ruled out a tsunami threat for the Indian Ocean on Friday, reconfirmed on Saturday that the sea levels in the Indian Ocean were not different from what had been anticipated.
INCOIS issued the first bulletin just seven minutes after the massive undersea quake near the east coast of Honshu in Japan on Friday.
The Indian Early Tsunami Warning System based on the data it received from seismic stations, sea level gauges, bottom pressure recorders (tsunami buoys) and the numerical model to predict the water level changes expected at various locations along the Indian coast worked well, a release from INCOIS said.
It reported that following the main shock on Friday till 9 a.m. on Saturday, about 130 aftershocks of more than 6.0 magnitude were recorded.
In fact, the first bulletin issued at 11.24 a.m. predicted the estimated magnitude of the quake in Honshu at 7.9 Mwp, and the estimated focal depth was 10 km. This matched with the initial magnitudes reported by other centres such as USGS.
Subsequently, on the arrival of more data from seismic stations, the magnitude was re-estimated at magnitude 8.6 and focal depth 5 km. This information was issued through the second bulletin at 12.15 p.m. Both the bulletins indicated that the India Ocean did not face a tsunami threat.
Both the bulletins were disseminated to the relevant departments in the Centre such as the Ministry of Earth Sciences, the National Disaster Management Authority, and other regional contacts.
INCOIS has 22 sea-level gauges at Aerial Bay, Chennai, Ennore, Garden Reach, Haldia, Kandla, Karwar, Krishnapatnam, Marmagao, Machilipatnam, Nagapattinam, Paradeep, Port Blair, Vadinar, Visakhapatnam, among others, and three bottom pressure recorders. Two such recorders in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal got triggered to tsunami mode due to the arrival of seismic waves.
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                            2004 TSUNAMI -ACEH-INDONESIA
Tsunami South Asia
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                                                           TSUNAMI SRI LANKA
                                         







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                        PLACES NEAR BOMBAY PRONE FOR EARTH QUAKE
RED:-SEVERE EARTH QUAKE POSSIBLE
BOMBAY:-MODERATE EATH QUAKE POSSIBLE



             BOMBAY EARTH QUAKES IN THE PAST:-
Year Month Intensity (MMI)/Magnitude (R)
1618 May IX MAGNITUDE (9) IS VERY VERY SEVERE EARTH QUAKE LUCKLY BEFORE CITY WAS MADE
1832 Oct VI MAGNITUDE(7) IS SEVERE EARTH QUAKE
1906 March VI MAGNITUDE (6) IS ALSO SEVERE
1929 February V MAGNITUDE (5)
1933 July V MAGNITUDE (5)
1951 April VIII MAGNITUDE (8) VERY SEVERE
1966 May V (5)
1967 April 4.5 (R)
1967 June 4.2 (R)
1993 September 6.4 (R)
1998 May 3.8
2005 March 5.1
2005 June 3.7
2005 August 4.1
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Japanese tsunami


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Tsunami gif






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India | Posted on Apr 12, 2012 at 12:55pm IST

Mumbai is tsunami-proof, says civic official[FOOLISH TALK ]

Mumbai: While several parts of coastal India had hit the panic button, the financial capital of the country was on the alert, but not in fright.
According to a senior BMC official, "Studies and experts assert that tsunami can never hit Mumbai, as there isn't any epicenter in the ocean on the western side. It’s only earthquakes that can bother the city because there are three major active fault lines in Panvel, Koyna and another spot, which is in Pakistan.”
Chief officer of BMC’s Disaster Management Cell M Narvekar said, “Though there was no alert in Mumbai, as per the norms, we had kept all the facilities on a stand-by. Also, we were constantly taking details from INCOIS, which is the central nodal agency and gives accurate hourly updates.”
Mumbai is tsunami-proof, says civic official
Narvekar added that there are three types of SOPs — Alert, Warning and Watch — and Mumbai was on Watch, wherein the situation was only to be observed.
Likewise, civic body’s Standing Committee Chairman Rahul Shewale said, “We are prepared for disasters like buildings collapse during rains and earthquake. In case of an emergency, we’d have activated the ward-level disaster controls following which 256 fire engines, 30 ambulances, along with several private ambulances would have been sent to help people.”
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