Friday, July 14, 2017

Grant medical college and jj hospital old photo -New lease of life for GMC


Image result for Grant medical college renovated

Sir Jamshetjee Jeejebhoy Group of Hospitals – Grant Medical College Logo Sir Jamshetjee Jeejebhoy Group of Hospitals

New lease of life for GMC

The complete restoration of Grant Medical College, the first medical college in the country, will be done in three years
First phase of restoration of 172-yr-old Grant Medical College is over, architect Abha Narain Lambah has retained original look of the building that could well be the first Victorian gothic structure built by the British.

The historic appeal of 172-year-old Grant Medical College (GMC) in Byculla, which got lost in crumbling walls, leaking ceilings, broken windows and doors, has been finally restored.

The first-phase restoration of the country’s first medical college, which is attached to Sir JJ Hospital, is over. Work started in February 2016.

State government-appointed conservation architect Abha Narain Lambah carried out the restoration job, giving a fresh lease of life to one part of the dilapidated building, which looks bright and beautiful in pastel shades of yellow and green.

The Grade II B heritage property will be transformed into a medical library of rare books and a museum featuring over 7,000 old machines and tools that were used by doctors since 1845.

Shedding light on the long-stuck project, Sir JJ Hospital’s dean Dr TP Lahane told Mirror, “The state government has sanctioned Rs 12.5 crore for restoration, which will be complete in three phases. We are hoping to wrap up the work in three years,” he added.

Dr Lahane further said that the architect had tried to keep the building’s original look.

“It’s a beautiful building with arched doors and windows made of teakwood and spiral stairs. GMC being the first medical college in the country, we wanted to increase the longevity of the historical structure. The restoration team did a wonderful job, keeping intact much of the original materials that were used to build the college,” he added.

Earlier, the building also housed the central government’s Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine on the ground floor and JJ Hospital’s administration office on the first floor. It was vacated in 2014 after some portions of it started to crumble. The medical college shifted out to a different building on the 44-acre campus in the 1980s.

Conservation architect Lambah said that the structure could well be the first Victorian gothic building built by the British in the country and they tried their best to retain the original look.

“The college building was in such a bad shape. Everything was broken and coming apart. The wooden wall ceiling had caved in, the porch too. It was unsafe to even start work. We couldn’t figure the original design of the building. So we did research on the building’s history, got hold some old photographs and sketches, which suggested it could be the first Victorian gothic building of the British era,” Lambah said.

She added that they used colours usually seen in Victorian gothic buildings. “We used Burma teak to replace the old, rotten one,” she added.

Grant Medical College and Sir Jamshedjee Jeejeebhoy Group of Hospitals

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Coordinates: 18.964143°N 72.834750°E
Grant Government Medical College
Motto "Mens Sana in Corpore Sano"
Type Educational institution
Established 1845
Dean Dr. Tatyarao Lahane
Undergraduates 200 per year[1]
Postgraduates 100 per year
Location Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Campus Byculla
Nickname Grant Medical College
Affiliations Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik
The Grant Government Medical College, Mumbai is a medical college affiliated to the Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nashik. Founded in 1845, it counts among the premier medical institutions in India and one of the oldest institutions teaching Western medicine in Asia. It has been consistently ranked on the list of top ten medical colleges in the country. The college accepts 200 students annually for the undergraduate degree[1] and around 100 annually for the various postgraduate degrees in medicine. The medical college is situated in Byculla on the campus of Sir J. J. Hospital. the hospital has combined bed strength of 2844 and caters to an annual load of 1,200,000 out patients and 80,000 indoor patients, from all parts of Maharashtra and central India.
Its clinical affiliate is Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy Group of Hospitals: a conglomerate of four hospitals in South Bombay that include the Sir J. J. Hospital, St George Hospital, Gokuldas Tejpal Hospital, and Cama and Albess Hospital( women and children hospital) Grant Medical College is among the 8 medical colleges of India which have been recognised by medical council of Singapore.



Establishment of Grant Medical College

Old Grant Medical College building, 1860.
The Bombay Presidency became part of the British possessions in India in 1818. In Western India there was a need for well-trained doctors as well as a general hospital for Indians . Under the guidance of Mountstuart Elphinstone attempts were made to offer Indians an opportunity to learn and practice Medicine along western lines. In 1826, a medical school was started with surgeon John McLennan as the superintendent of the Indian (native) medical school around Azad Maidan in southern Bombay. However, this school failed after six years. Around 1840 only two medical schools existed in India, one at Calcutta and another at Madras. In 1834 Sir Robert Grant was appointed the Governor of Bombay. He directed his attention to the expediency of establishing a systematic institution in the city for imparting medical knowledge to the, which would be more complete, comprehensive and better planned than the previously abolished medical school. He instituted a detailed inquiry into the ways and means by which Indians could have better medical care and education. As he struggled and strove to push through his ambition for a wisely planned medical college in Bombay, he met strong opposition. To quell the opposition Grant envisaged the formation of the first medical society in India, The Medical and Physical Society of Bombay. It was a society that would bring together the medical officers of the Bombay Presidency and encourage a spirit of scientific enquiry. It was due to efforts of Dr. Charles Morehead (the then surgeon) to the governor that this society came into existence in November 1835.

Jamshedjee Jeejeebhoy Hospital, 1843 print.
Dr. Moorehead and other members studied all the documents pertaining to the abolished medical school. They also drew up and circulated a questionnaire aimed at collecting information on the current medical practice amongst the Indians. It was also intended to help educate Indians in European medicine. In July, 1837, the Society reported that "the conclusion to which we have been led by this course of inquiry is that the establishment of a medical School for the education of the Indians of the presidency in Medical Science, to the extent of qualifying Indians to become useful and safe practitioners of medicine."
Grant developed a proposal on March 1838 in which the subject of medical education of Indians of this presidency was fully discussed in detail. It was sent to Sir Auckland's government in Calcutta. In March 1838 Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy offered a donation of Rs. 1 lac for building a new general hospital with Indians. Grant took note of this in his minute, adding that the hospital would facilitate medical instruction. The East India Company, as conveyed in its letter dated 18 July 1838, happily endorsed the proposal for a medical college. However, nine days before the arrival of this news, Grant succumbed to an attack of cerebral apoplexy while vacationing in Dapori, near Pune.
A historic public meeting was held in town hall by citizens of Bombay to mourn his death. The Sanskrit scholar Jagannath Shankarsheth proposed that it would be a fitting tribute that the medical college should be established and that it should bear his name. The government accepted this proposal. The foundation stone of the building was laid on 30 March 1843, and the building was completed in October 1845.
Simultaneously with the plans and foundation of the college, it was also decided, with the aid of a munificent donation offered by Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy, to substitute the previously existing Indian general hospital in the city, by creating a "School of Practice" (now known as the Sir J.J. Hospital) near the hospital and in conjunction with it. The professors of the medical college were the medical officers of the hospital. The foundation stone was laid on 3 January 1843 and the School of Practice was opened for reception of the sick from 15 May 1845. In 1845, admittance to the college was accorded without exception for caste or creed to candidates between the ages of 16 and 20 with respectable connection and general intelligence; grammatical knowledge of their vernacular language, arithmetic including Rules of Proportion and a thorough knowledge of English with fluency was expected. Each candidate was required to present a certificate of good conduct from the headmaster of the school in which he had studied and also one expressly stating that he was possessed of the necessary information and capable of undergoing the examination proposed.
The entrance examination was conducted by the superintendent and the professors of the college. The books selected for testing the knowledge of English were Milton's Paradise Lost, Robertson's Histories, or a similar classical standard.
The first group of students admitted to the Grant Medical College, Bombay, on 1 November 1845 were:

Grant Medical College in the Illustrated London News, 8 October 1859, print from a photograph by H. Hinton.
  • Free: Bhau Daji Parsekar, Monoel A.D. Carvalho, Sebestian A.D. Carvalho
  • Stipendary: Atmaram Pandurang, Paul Francis Gomes, Fardemjee Jamshetji, Ananta Chandroba Dkule, J.C. Lisoba, Manoel Antonio D'Abrew.
The first professors of Grant Medical College were Charles Morehead, M.D., FRCS, Professor of the Institute of Practice of Medicine, Dr. John Peet, M.D., FRCS, Professor of Anatomy and Surgery and Dr. Herbert John Giraud, M.D., Professor of Chemistry and Materia Medica.

Early Professor of Midwifery of Grant College
In 1849 two more teachers joined the college. Dr. W. C. Colls taught Medical Jurisprudence and Dr. R. D. Peele taught Midwifery.
Attendance was not quite satisfactory during the first year. In following years, however, it became so good that students declined to take advantage of holidays but preferred to attend classes.
The Bombay University was founded in 1857. In 1860, Grant Medical College became one of the four colleges recognized by it for teaching courses leading to degrees (others being Elphinstone College, Deccan College and Government Law College, Mumbai). With its affiliation to the university, GMC's entrance exams were abolished. Matriculation in Bombay University was made a necessary qualification for admission to the Medical College. The G.G.M.C. degree was replaced by L.M. (Licentiate of Medicine) which later gave way to L.M.&S. (Licentiate of Medicine and Surgery) and finally to M.B.B.S. .

Gradual expansion of Sir J.J. Hospital

Immediately after the First World War, there was a great rush of students to the college. To continue to provide effective instruction training at the bedside of patients, the Gokuldas Tejpal Hospital was used as a teaching center in the subjects of Medicine and Surgery in 1924. This arrangement has continued to date.
Gradually the facilities at the Sir J.J. Group of Hospitals were also increased. The Sir Leslie Wilson Hospital Fund played an important part. The Yellappa Balaram pavilion (104 beds), Sir David Sassoon Hospital (97 beds and O.T.), Byramjee Jejeebhoy Hospital for Children (100 beds) were constructed and the Sir C.J. Ophthalmic Hospital was reconstructed (adding 73 beds).
The students had to stay in chawls opposite the compound until 1911 when the old hostel was built. In 1938, the R.M. Bhatt hostel was built thanks to the efforts of C.S. Patel and Col. Bhatia — one of the most respected teacher of his time.
The Pathology Department was established in 1880; the first autopsy was conducted in 1882. In 1896, Sir V.M. Haffkine/Waldemar Haffkine worked on the preparation of plague vaccine in the F.D. Petit Laboratory of G.M.C. (which is today occupied by Pharmacology Department).
Robert Koch's work on Vibrio cholerae was done in two rooms of the old animal house behind coroner's court. Van Duke Carter, after whom the O.P.D. Laboratory of Sir J.J.H. is named discovered in pathology department the spirochaetes of relapsing fever in blood smears in 1907. It was here that Christopher and Caval worked on malaria and Dr. Raghavendra Rao worked in on tropical diseases, leprosy, plague and leishmaniasis.
In 1929, the department was shifted to the new building of Pathology School thanks to the munificence of the Tatas. Dr. V.R. Khanolkar the doyen of Pathology in India initiated work on cancer epidemiology. He was the founder member and the first president of the Indian Association of Pathologists in 1949. Dr. P.V. Gharpure started the Pathology Museum and the Association of Teaching Pathologists in Bombay.
The first M.D. of Bombay University was Dr. Anna Moreshwar Kunte in 1876. Another GMCite Dr. K.N. Bahadurji was the first Indian to obtain M.D. from London and who died of plague in 1896 while in charge of the Passes Plaque Hospital. In his memory the Student Sick Ward was built. This was torn down and replaced in 1908 to make room for the William Moore Operation Theatre.
Initially in 1845, J.J. Hospital had only a casualty and an Out Patient Department with a dispensary behind it. Soon in 1851, the Obstetric institution was built thanks to Sir J.J.'s donations. In 1892, the Obstetric ward became the Parsee ward.
In 1866, the Ophthalmic Hospital was erected by the donation given by Sir Cowasjee Jehangirjee. In 1930 it was remodeled by Sir J. Duggan in a three-storeyed building remodeled it for which Sir Cowasjee Jehangir, Third Baronet, donated a large sum. This was later reformed as the O.P.D. In this small place also existed the Medical Department, Minor Surgery, E.N.T. Department, and Dental chair. From 1907-1928 this was converted into biology and bacteriology laboratories.
The General Medical Council found that the facilities for teaching midwifery were deficient in G.M.C. To overcome this problem, the Bai Motlibai and Cama Albless Hospital were affiliated to G.M.C. by 1923.

Non-cooperation movement

During the early 1900s all prestigious professional posts were held by British I.M.S. officers, while Indians were given only non-clinical appointments. In 1921, the Non-cooperation movement appealed to GMCites to boycott the British government by leaving G.M.C. Students, professors and practitioners began shifting to Topiwala National Medical College near Victoria Gardens. Masses were held between 6-8 p.m. for medical students by famous medical practitioners, all GMCites. To prove that Indians themselves could build and maintain medical institutions without British support, the K.E.M. Hospital and Seth G.S. Medical College where the entire staff was Indian were founded in 1926.

Post-independence reconstructions

The greatest change to G.M.C. and J.J.H. came in 1958 when the old J.J. building was torn down and replaced by a seven-storeyed hospital building. The O.P.D. was extended to contain Investigation Laboratories. Today it is spread over 44 acres (178,000 m²) in Byculla with 14 gates, a long jump from the two-room teaching hospital in an area of 4 acres (16,000 m2).

The J.J. Hospital Campus

The present campus, the largest of any of the Medical Colleges in Mumbai, is spread out over 44 acres (180,000 m2) in the Byculla area of South Mumbai. The campus is notable for its greenery and open spaces in an otherwise congested part of the city. With gradual additions and expansions since its initial foundation, the campus has a mix of buildings depicting both modern Indian and Colonial architecture. As the campus expanded it incorporated hospitals that were originally independent before being absorbed into J.J. Hospital and thus retain some of their older names, notably: C.J. Ophthalmic Hospital, B.J. Hospital for children and the David Sasoon Hospital. The campus has a total of 45 wards, 5 hostels and 7 canteens. It also provides residential facilities to its teaching faculty, resident doctors, medical students, nurses and other hospital workers. The anatomy hall of Grant Medical College was featured in the movie Munnabhai M.B.B.S. as central lecture hall in the fictional medical school attended by the lead character. In addition to the main campus situated at Byculla, it also has a sea facing gymkhana at marine drive in south Mumbai.


University and college rankings
Medical - India
Outlook India[2] 7
Careers360[3] 17
The institute was ranked seventh among medical colleges in India in 2017 by Outlook India.[2] It was ranked 17 by Careers360 in 2017, 12 among government institutes.[3]

List of buildings

  • Main Hospital Building
  • Main OPD building
  • Balaram Building
  • C.J. Ophthalmic Building
  • Academic Section
  • Duggan Eye bank
  • Parsi Ward
  • PSM Department Building
  • Old Pharmacology Building
  • Boys Common Room
  • Public Works Department
  • Nursing College
  • Matron's office
  • Anatomy Department
  • Physiology Department
  • Biochemistry Department
  • Central Medical Library
  • Pathology Building
  • Coroner's Court
  • Bai Motlibai Hall
  • Resident Doctors Hostel
  • Ladies Hostel
  • Apna Boys Hostel
  • R.M. Bhatt Hostel
  • Infectious Diseases Ward
  • Skin & VD Building
  • CWC Hall
  • Old Boys Hostel
  • Central Canteen

Department and faculties

  • Ophthalmology
  • Anaesthesia -
  • Medicine
  • Anatomy
  • Biochemistry
  • C.V.T.S.
  • Chest Diseases & Tuberculosis
  • Dentistry
  • Dermatology
  • E.N.T.
  • Forensic Medicine
  • Microbiology
  • Pathology
  • Surgery
  • Paediatric Surgery
  • Pharmacology
  • Obs & Gyn
  • Physiology
  • Community Medicine
  • Psychiatry
  • Nephrology
  • Neurology
  • Neurosurgery
  • Orthopaedics
  • Radiology
  • Urology
  • Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

The Research Society

The Research Society started functioning in 1965 in the Skin & Serology Department building on the second floor with an office and research library and a proposed space for a research laboratory.This proposal has not been entertained so far .
The Research Society has the following aims & objectives:
  • To promote & encourage research & medical science in departments of GMC & J.J.H.
  • Sponsor all such activities conducted to promotion of medical science & all such measures to fulfill objectives.
The founder members were Dr. J. G. Parekh, Dr. P. M. Udani, Dr. B. J. Vakil, Dr. S. J. Shah, Dr. V. C. Talwalkar, Dr. J.C. Joshipura and Dr. B. B. Gaitonde.
It awards post graduate students for the best research paper and for the best thesis. It sponsors scientific conferences, medical workshops and symposia.

Notable Alumni


Robert Grant (MP)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sir Robert Grant.
Sir Robert Grant GCH (1779 – 9 July 1838) was a British lawyer and politician.



Robert Grant was born in India, the son of Charles Grant, chairman of the Directors of the Honourable East India Company, and younger brother of Charles Grant, later Lord Glenelg. Returning home with their father in 1790, the two brothers were entered as students of Magdalene College, Cambridge, in 1795. In 1801 Charles was fourth wrangler and senior Chancellor’s medallist; Robert was third wrangler and second Chancellor’s medallist.[1]
Grant was called to the bar the same day as his brother, 30 January 1807, and entered into legal practice, becoming King’s Sergeant in the Court of the Duchy of Lancaster, and one of the Commissioners in Bankruptcy. He was elected Member of Parliament for the Elgin Burghs in 1818, and for the Inverness Burghs in 1826. The latter constituency he represented for four years. In 1830 and 1831, he was returned for Norwich, and in 1832 for Finsbury. He advocated for the removal of the disabilities of the Jews, and twice carried bills on the subject through the House of Commons. They were, however, rejected in the Upper House, which did not yield on the question until 1858, twenty years after Grant’s death. In 1832 he became Judge Advocate General, and in 1834 was appointed Governor of Bombay and GCH.[citation needed] He died at Dapodi, near to Poona on 9 July 1838.[2]


In his younger days Grant published an essay on the trade and government of India, and a sketch of the early history of the British East India Company. He was the author of a volume of sacred poems, which was edited and published after his death by his brother, Lord Glenelg. This volume includes some hymns; his best known hymn is "O Worship the King", based on Psalm 104.


Grant Medical College, the oldest medical college in Mumbai, India, is named after Robert Grant, as are Grant Road and Grant Road Station in the same city.


Grant married Margaret, only daughter of Sir David Davidson of Cantray, with issue two sons and two daughters:
  • Sir Charles Grant, K.C.S.I, formerly a Member of Council in India;
  • Colonel Robert Grant, R.E., Deputy Adjutant General;
  • Sibylla Sophia, married to Granville Ryder, Esq.; and
  • Constance Charemile, who died in childhood.
Ten years after his death, Margaret married Josceline Percy, second son of the Earl of Beverley, with issue one son, George Algernon, born in 1849, who later became Capt. and Lt. Col. of the Grenadier Guards.


  • "Grant, Robert (GRNT795R)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.

  • Attribution This article incorporates text from a work in the public domain: The Northern Highlands in the nineteenth century (1907) by James Barron

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    Church History / Timeline / 1801-1900 / Sir Robert Grant Penned "O Worship the King"

    O worship the King

    • 8 years ago
    O worship the King, all glorious above, O gratefully sing His power and His love; Our Shield and Defender, the Ancient of Days, ...

    Sir Robert Grant Penned "O Worship the King"

    Dan Graves, MSL

    Sir Robert Grant Penned "O Worship the King" Sir Robert Grant was a busy man of the world--too busy to concern himself with hymns, you might think. He had been born in India in 1779, the son of the East India Company's director, Charles Grant, a man associated with the Clapham Sect (a group of evangelical social reformers from Clapham, England).
    Born in the colonies Robert may have been, but it was in Magdalen College at the University of Oxford that he completed his higher education. He was admitted to the bar in 1807--which meant he could practice law. The following year, the 29-year-old won a seat in Parliament.
    He remained in Parliament for many years. Like his father, he was deeply concerned with social issues. Through his persistent efforts a bill was eventually passed which emancipated England's Jews. He fought for other minority groups, too. In the meantime, he was a strong supporter of world missions and influential among evangelicals in the Church of England. He sketched a history of the East India Company. Yet somehow, he found time to write hymns.
    In fact, he wrote a hymn which is considered one of the greatest in the English language. Reading William Kethe's translation of Psalm 104 in a 1561 psalm book prompted Robert to write his own version of the psalm, familiar to millions of church-goers.
    O Worship the King all glorious above!
    O gratefully sing his power and his love,
    Our Shield and Defender, the Ancient of days,
    Pavilioned in splendor, and girded with praise.
    Robert accepted a high position in the East India company. One thing led to another. He was asked to be governor of Bombay and accepted. He took over his new duties in 1834. As governor, he had opportunity to put his social concerns into practice, for the poverty and spiritual condition of the common people were appalling. Among his accomplishments were the opening of several new roads, an inducement to commerce.
    He held the governorship only four years, dying on this day, July 9, 1838 at the young age of 59. In that time, the people came to love him. When Sir Jamshedji a well-known Parsi (a person of the Zoroastrian faith), built a medical college, he gave it Robert Grant's name. It is the second oldest medical college in India.
    The year after Robert's death in 1838, his brother Charles printed Sir Robert's twelve hymns in a slender volume called Sacred Poems. The only one which is still sung by many people is "O Worship the King."


    ee Jejeebhoy

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, Bt
    Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy.png
    Jejeebhoy and his Chinese secretary (portrait by George Chinnery)
    Born 15 July 1783
    Bombay, India
    Died 14 April 1859 (aged 75)
    Bombay, India
    Occupation Merchandiser, business magnate
    Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, 1st Baronet (15 July 1783 – 14 April 1859[1]), also spelt Jeejeebhoy or Jeejebhoy, was a Parsi-Indian merchant and philanthropist. He is more historically notable for making a huge fortune on the opium trade to China.[2][3][4]


    Early life and business career

    Jejeebhoy was born in Bombay (now Mumbai) in 1783, of Merwanjee Mackjee Jejeebhoy and Jeevibai Cowasjee Jejeebhoy, a textile merchant from Olpad, Gujarat, who migrated to Bombay in the 1770s.[5] His parents died in 1799 after which he was brought up by his maternal uncle Framjee Nasserwanjee Battliwala. At the age of sixteen, having had little formal education, he made his first visit to Calcutta and then began his first voyage to China to trade in cotton and opium.[6]
    Jejeebhoy's second voyage to China was made in a ship of the East India Company's fleet. Under the command of Sir Nathaniel Dance, this ship drove off a French squadron under Rear-Admiral Charles-Alexandre Léon Durand Linois in the Battle of Pulo Aura.
    On Jejeebhoy's fourth voyage to China, the Indiaman in which he sailed was forced to surrender to the French, by whom he was carried as a prisoner to the Cape of Good Hope, then a neutral Dutch possession. After much delay and great difficulty, Jejeebhoy made his way to Calcutta in a Danish ship. Undaunted, Jejeebhoy undertook another voyage to China which was more successful than any of his previous journeys.
    By this time Jejeebhoy had fairly established his reputation as an enterprising merchant possessed of considerable wealth. In 1803, he married his maternal uncle's daughter Avabai (d.1870) and settled in Bombay, where he directed his commercial operations on an extended scale. Around this time, he changed his name from "Jamshed" to "Jamsetjee" to sound similar to names of the Gujarati community. In 1814, his co-operation with the British East India company had yielded him sufficient profits to purchase his first ship, the Good Success, and he gradually added another six ships to this, usually carrying primarily opium and a little cotton to China.[7] By 1836, Jejeebhoy's firm was large enough to employ his three sons and other relatives, and he had amassed what at that period of Indian mercantile history was regarded as fabulous wealth.
    Jejeebhoy was known by the nickname "Mr. Bottlewalla". "Walla" meant "trader", and Jejeebhoy's business interests included the manufacture and sale of bottles on the basis of his uncle's business. Jejeebhoy and his family would often sign letters and checks using the name "Battliwala", and were known by that name in business and society, but he did not choose this assumed surname when it came to the baronetcy.
    In 1818, he formed the business, trading and shipping firm "Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy & Co." with two other associates Motichund Amichund and Mahomed Ali Rogay as Jejeebhoy’s business associates. He was later joined by a Goan Rogeria de Faria. His voyages to China resulted in a long trading partnership with the Canton based company Jardine Matheson & Co. He was seen as the chief representative of the Indian community in Bombay by the British Imperial authorities.[8]

    How Bombay's Parsis cracked the opium trade - The Economic Times › Magazines › Corporate Dossier
    Jan 17, 2014 - Many Indian business communities tried their hands at the opium trade ... This prompted the British to expand the market for opium in China.


    Sketch of Jejeebhoy, 1857

    The Illustrated London News print of Jejeebhoy's residence, 1858

    Engraving of the Bombay Native Hospital, constructed at the joint expense of Jejeebhoy and the East India Company; it was later renamed "Sir J.J. Hospital".

    Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy statue, Mumbai
    An essentially self-made man, having experienced the miseries of poverty in early life, Jejeebhoy developed great sympathy for his poorer countrymen. In his later life he was occupied with alleviating human distress in all its forms. Parsi and Christian, Hindu and Muslim, were alike the objects of his beneficence. Hospitals, schools, homes of charity and pension funds throughout India (particularly in Bombay, Navsari, Surat, and Poona) were created or endowed by Jejeebhoy, and he financed the construction of many public works such as wells, reservoirs, bridges, and causeways. By the time of his death in 1859, he was estimated to have donated over £230,000 to charity. Some of Jejeebhoy's notable charitable works include:
    Between 1822 and 1838, cattle from the congested fort area used to graze freely at the Camp Maidan (now called Azad Maidan), an open ground opposite the Victoria Terminus. In 1838, the British rulers introduced a 'grazing fee' which several cattle-owners could not afford. Therefore, Sir Jamshedji Jeejeebhoy spent Rs. 20,000 from his own purse for purchasing some grasslands near the seafront at Thakurdwar and saw that the starving cattle grazed without a fee in that area. In time the area became to be known as "Charni" meaning grazing. When a railway station on the BB&CI railway was constructed there it was called Charni Road.


    Jejeebhoy's services were first recognised by the British Empire in 1842 by the bestowal of a knighthood and in 1858 by the award of a baronetcy. These were the very first distinctions of their kind conferred by Queen Victoria upon a British subject in India.
    On Jejeebhoy's death in 1859, his Baronetcy was inherited by his eldest son Cursetjee Jejeebhoy, who, by a special Act of the Viceroy's Council in pursuance of a provision in the letters-patent, took the name of Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy as second baronet.

    Jejeebhoy and the Parsi community

    From 1838 onward, the Bombay Parsi Panchayat came to be increasingly disregarded as the instrument for regulating the affairs of members of the community that resided in the Bombay Presidency. Amidst calls for dissolution of the (then) 110-year-old institution for nepotism and fiscal mismanagement (it would eventually be reestablished as administrator of community property), the community gradually came to depend on prominent individuals not connected to the panchayat and its improprieties. This was especially true for Jejeebhoy, thanks to his wealth and charitable works and the recognition afforded him by the British authorities due to his baronetcy.