Wednesday, January 15, 2020

HOW INDIA PROGRESSED FROM ONE AMONG THE POOREST 10 NATION

HOW INDIA PROGRESSED FROM ONE AMONG THE POOREST 10 NATION

193K views 4 years ago


I SAW IT HAPPENING 1947 -2019 -SO I WROTE THIS BLOG=can call this a first hand or ring side or live unfolding of events "
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HOW INDIA PROGRESSED FROM ONE AMONG THE POOREST 10 NATIONS TO ONE AMONG THE RICHEST 10 NATIONS IN 50 YEARS TIME ;AND NOW AIMING TO BE THE FIRST NATION OF THE WORLD IN ANOTHER 50 YEARS OF TIME

-When India gained its independence after a long period of subjugation, its land and people were a picture of distress, removed from great events of its past glory and splendor.


A whole creative side of Indian civilisation had shrunk under the foreign rule
. Common man, burdened by poverty, hunger and ignorance, had lost the will to exercise its productive might.
Out of the dust, they had to be raised by men of great vision, like Gandhi and Nehru. In his memorable speech, delivered to the Constituent Assembly on 14th. August, 1947, Nehru said : "The future is not all of ease and resting, but of incessant striving…"


India was a stagnant economy at the time of independence.
The economy was predominantly agrarian with little industrial development. Most people lived in villages, in hunger and despair. Bullock carts, wooden ploughs,


spinning wheels and thatched huts - life made of small things, unimaginatively hard, dull and cruel.

Agricultural growth was around 0.3% per annum in the first half of this century.
The colonial government took little interest in the improvement of cultivation practices, except in the case of export crops like cotton, jute and tea.

The railway system was built only for connecting the ports with the export production centres and the import markets; all other infrastructural facilities were lacking.

https://youtu.be/MwpaXBguDlw?t=128=Trains till 1975'S

Vallabhbhai patel got his first opportunity to utilize Gandhiji's philosophy of satyagraha in 1918 for the farmers of Kaira who had lost their crops to heavy rains and floods that year. The government disregarded the farmers' misery and insisted on collecting land revenue. Vallabhbhai organized the No Tax campaign on peaceful, Gandhian lines. The government held out and began confiscating land and what little crops and cattle the farmers still had. Vallabhbhai, now decked in a dhoti, kurta and cap urged the farmers not to buckle. The government eventually relented and returned the confiscated property. This was the first victory of satyagraha for Vallabhbhai. He was jubilant. 

 In 1928, Vallabhbhai patel once again came to the rescue of the farmers, this time it was in Bardoli, which was then a part of Surat district. The Government increased the tax on the land. Vallabhbhai urged the farmers not to pay, declaring the hike unjust. He prepared the farmers for satyagraha. The farmers refused to pay the tax hike. In retaliation, the Government confiscated their land, cattle and crops and arrested hundreds of farmers. There was a mass exodus from Bardoli to escape the Government's atrocities. The farmers that remained continued the satyagraha.
Vallabhbhai told the farmers not to sell milk, vegetables and necessities to any person unless they produced a chit assigned by the local satyagraha committee. The "peaceful" war raged for six months. Finally Vithalbhai, Vallabhbhai's brother, who was President of the Central Legislative Assembly, brokered a comprise. The Government agreed to hold an inquiry into the justification of the tax hike, released the satyagrahis and returned all confiscated items back to the farmers. So pleased was Gandhiji with Vallabhbhai's effort that he gave him the title of "Sardar" or leader.
 
Local enterprise was confined largely to trade and commerce, mainly in and around port cities like Bombay, Calcutta and Madras.

A few industrial centres grew around these cities through private entrepreneurship.
There had been an adverse impact on the artisan sector under British rule.
The old crafts were left to languish and decay - ill prepared to modernise.
Large factories, few in number, produced mainly consumer goods, like textiles

and sugar.
Intermediates like steel, cement and jute machinery were mostly imported.
The extremely narrow base of industrialisation remained confined to a very few cities and states and was the monopoly of a few privileged families.

The export strategy was not conducive to the country's interests.
Exports were seen as a mechanism to transfer raw materials cheaply to the metropolitan cities in the United Kingdom, which, in turn, processed them into final goods for exporting back to the colonies.
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INDIA -THE BRITISH LEGACY
Railways in India were privately owned by public limited companies incorporated in England, whose shares were quoted and traded on the London Stock Exchange.[another way to make money by the colonial ruler]
 Only after India became free in August 1947 railways came to be nationalised.


India's industrial output was 25% of worlds industrial output in 1770 AD. When British left after 200 years of various form of rule  India had 0.1% of worlds industrial output 2) Literacy was left at 13% and 3) Average life expectancy of Indians was brought to measly 37 years
AGRICULTURE WAS TAXED VERY HEAVY:-LEADING TO BARDOLI AGITATION UNDER SARDAR PATEL AND MAHATMA GANDHI :-Patel a brilliant lawyer proved to be an excellent organizer. He instructed the peasants not to pay a twenty-two percent increase in taxes levied by the British Government.

British thought of increasing tax for agriculturists as there was nothing else to tax!! no industry;nothing else to tax after 200 years of loot rule 

Bardoli Satyagraha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bardoli_SatyagrahaThe Bardoli Satyagraha of 1928,

The British Government confiscated movable property in retaliation. Pots, pans, livestock, carts and horses were taken away from the peasants. The peasants remained non-violent.
Patel asked the peasants to dismantle the carts in order to increase the difficulty of government officials. Accordingly, wheels were removed and the shafts were hidden. The officials were not impeded in any other way.
All of India keenly observed the events taking place in Bardoli. Contribution of funds poured in to help maintain the struggle. Some wanted Gandhi to expand the movement to other provinces. Gandhi resisted any such move. The civil resistors in Bardoli were well organized by Patel and were well disciplined. The population of Bardoli, which was under one hundred thousand, was also manageable. Gandhi did not want to risk degeneration into violence by expanding the struggle to other places with larger populations who were less organized and disciplined.
The British government of India came under pressure from London to crush the movement. In an effort to do so the Government stated that they had auctioned some seized lands and threatened to sell the remainder if taxes were not paid. However it had no effect. The peasants would not submit.
Finally, in a desperate move the Government arrested Patel. Gandhi replaced him as the leader and moved into Bardoli. A few days later the Government capitulated.
In an agreement with Patel the Government promised to cancel the increase in taxes and return all the confiscated property. Patel on behalf of the peasants agreed to pay taxes at the old rates.
In Bardoli Gandhi demonstrated to the British Government and to the Indian people that the method of non-violent civil disobedience was effective. He proved that the British Government could be successfully defied. The British Government would have realized that from henceforth it would be difficult to govern India without the consent of the people. They could no longer act with impunity.


  • India had 30crore (300mn) population, with an average longivity of 32 years (with between 17.5 to 19.0% infantile mortality)
  • There were just 360,000 income-tax payers in 1947
  • Only13% of Indians were literate (literacy rate among women was 9%)
  • 83% of Indians lived in villages, and 70% depended on agriculture... 28% were landless labours (this, as one would notice, has not changed much)
  • 70% of cultivated land was owned by a handful of zamindars and money-lenders.
  •  We were producing 52 million tonnes in 1950-51 and are today producing 257 million tonnesFrom a food importing country we are now exporting, though it is also a fact that a large number of population is not fed, whereas godowns are full.
  • Only 3% of India's workforce (less than 9mn) was employed in manufacturing sector.
  • Jute and cotton industry accounted for 30% of the total industrial employment (and about 55% of value-added to manufacturing)
  • Indian farmers owned 0.9mn iron plough, and 31.3mn wooden plough.
  • Across the total population, even in 1950-51, there were just about 168,000 telephones.
  • Only 27% of cultivated land was irrigated.
  • In 1951, there were just 37,000 towns and villages (out of around 5,000 cities and 500,000 villages) with electricity
  • There were 9 agricultural colleges with around 3,000 students.
  • There were just 10 medical colleges that turned out about 700 doctors every years. In 1951 census, India had about 18,000 doctors... We also had 1,900 hospitals and 6,500 dispensaries, accounting for around 1.2lac (.12mn beds) - for a population of 300mn.
  • There were a total of 7 engineering colleges, with around 2,200 students.
  • In 1950, India produced 7 locomotives, 1mn tons of steel, 99,000 bicycles, 33mn tons of coal, 2.7mn tons of cement, 33,000 sewing machines,
  • India had a total number of 27 universities/colleges in 1950.
  • The total number of enrollment of students from primary to pre-degree education, in 1950-51, was less than 25mn.
  • There were around 6,500 newspapers and periodicals (nationals and vernacular) and 26 radio centers.
  • Even as late as 1955, India had just about 790,000 engineering degree/diploma holders.
  • There were a total of 1125 companies listed on the stock exchange (there were only two of them - Bombay and Calcutta)


  •  India hardly had any large-scale industry in 1947, which could process the raw-material into finished usable goods. There were a few industries in the cotton, jute, sugar, matches, and steel sectors, etc. - but they were too few to really service the country's needs. About 65-70% of India's less-than-Rs.600cr export consisted of raw material (cotton, oilseeds, minerals and ores, tobacco, etc.); around the same proportion of its imports were finished goods (ranging from biscuits, sewing needles, cloth etc., to dress-material, medicines to machines-tools). In fact, even in 1950, India was importing 90% of its requirement of machine tools.


    Indian Railways – The British Legacy

    But what about the railways ...?' ​​The myth of Britain's gifts to India |  Colonialism | The Guardian

    But what about the railways ...?' ​​The ...
    theguardian.com

      . Facing problems at home and abroad, the significant British interest in India was extraction of remaining wealth in Indian hands.
    Indian Railway system too suffered  from this approach.  Especially after WWI, the Great Depression  and the currency crisis, starved of investments and renewal, Indian railways suffered.


    During WW2, nearly 40% rolling stock from India was diverted to the Middle East. More than 50% of the track system was the outdated metre gauge and narrow gauge. Track systems were nearly a century old. 40% of the railway system went to Pakistan. 32 of the forty-two separate railway systems operating in India, were owned by the former Indian princely states. More than 8000 outdated steam engines were used as motive power – and less than 20 diesel locomotives were in use. Apart from elephants and people – called as ‘hand-shunting’ in Indian Railways lingo.




    www.youtube.com/watch?v=uFHnRn8yCek

    So much for the British gift of railways to India.
     NAPOLEON CALLED  ENGLAND AS THE "SHOP KEEPER OF THE WORLD"-[PROFIT FIRST PROFIT LAST WAS THEIRMOTTO; TILL THEY LEFT INDIA IN 1947]
    The railways run by the Indian princely states became party to the collusive price fixing systems. Like this extract (linked to the right) shows, all the business went to the British engineering yards. To this add the guaranteed returns systems, and what was achieved was something else.
    The guarantee system did not encourage cost control, and, at an average cost of BP18,000 per mile, the Indian railways were some of the costliest in the worldStarved of investments and maintenance, the railways infrastructure at the time of British departure was crumbling
     In 1952, it was decided that IIIrd class passengers deserved fans and light. It took another 7 years to implement this decision. Elephants used for shunting wagons, box-cars, finally got a respite after WDS-4B shunters were introduced by Chittaranjan Locomotive Works in 1969. In the 1977,3rd class railway travel was abolished. Wooden-slat seats were abolished. Cushioned 2nd class seating system was made minimum and standard. It took India 40 years, to modernize the colonial railway system, we should be thankful. Remember, they could have uprooted the rails, and taken away the wagons and engines. After all, Indian Railways was the biggest scrap iron collection in the world at that time.

    India began with an extremely low tax base as well as low income at Independence. This meant that the available revenues were small. Providing for public investment in industry, agriculture, infrastructure, defence and administration left meagre revenues for investment in education and health. Therefore, the option was to either settle for slow progress all around or pursue growth-friendly Track-I policies that would allow rapid expansion of incomes and revenues.

    Our tragedy was that, unlike South Korea and Taiwan, which foresaw the importance of Track-I reforms as early as the late 1950s and early 1960s, we went in the opposite direction and progressively slid into a command and control system. The result was slow growth as well as slow progress in education and health.

    But when we eventually accepted the lesson of history beginning in 1991, the results were spectacular: growth accelerated and social spending rose as well.

     -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    On Nov. 26th 1947, RK Shanmukham Chetty, India’s first Finance Minister presented the first budget.  It covered only 7 and half months from Aug 15th the day of Independence to March 31, 1948.  Though New Delhi could have authorized the expenditure for the part of the financial year, a budget was indeed presented in the Parliament and approved.   Understand that the Budget Estimate for total revenues was Rs 171.15 crore; of which notably, Rs 15.9 crore was to come from the Posts and Telegraphs Department. It was to be a deficit budget of 26.24 crores.  The first budget of the Republic of India was presented by John Mathai on Feb 28, 1950.   This budget laid down the roadmap for the creation of the Planning Commission. The Commission was entrusted with the responsibility of formulating phased plans for effective and balanced use of resources.  
    1.  SPEECH OF SHRI R.K. SHANMUKHAM CHETTY, MINISTER OF ...1947

      indiabudget.nic.in/bspeech/bs194849.pdf
      SPEECH OF SHRI R.K. SHANMUKHAM CHETTY, MINISTER OF ..... solved. 19. The allocation of the sterling reserves that the Reserve Bank will hold when.

    3 OCCASION WHEN INDIA DIDN'T HAVE MONEY TO PAY


    1-INDIA WAS SO POOR THAT IT COULD NOT PAY 55 CRORE TO PAKISTAN IN 1950

    The Messy Partition of the Reserve Bank of India - The Wire

    https://thewire.in › banking › partition-reserve-bank-of-...
    14-Aug-2017 — As the Indian subcontinent was divided in 1947, the Reserve Bank of India ... Not only did the RBI have to assist in deciding how its profits, assets and ... the time of the Partition were a little under Rs 400 crore and Pakistan's share ... of Rs 5 crore, payment of the remaining cash balance “appeared to be very ...The matter regarding release of Rs. 55 crores to Pakistan towards the second ... support of the Pakistani Army took place before the second installment was paid. ... However, linking his stand in this matter with his fast he undertook, as you will ... The press release Of the government of India did not have any mention thereof.

    Why were Nehru and Patel against giving Rs.55 crore to ...

    https://www.quora.com › Why-were-Nehru-and-Patel-a...
    22-Mar-2015 — So, in lieu of taking those things one country has to give Price of that thing to the other country. In that respect Single-Single drops make Ocean. So, Pakistan was ...
    15 answers  ·  28 votes: This is a good question, in all the other question related to Nehru and Patel, they are shown ...

    Pakistan still owes India Rs 300 crore as pre-partition debt ...

    https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com › articleshow_comm...
    Story did not explain 300 crore debt, I know that great Gandhi took stand to pay 55 crore to Pakistan at that
    ====================================
    2-WHEN INDIAN P.M. SHASTRI HAD TO BORROW MONEY FROM KING OF HYDERABAD

    The truth about the Nizam and his gold - The Hindu
    The truth about the Nizam and his gold ...
    thehindu.com
    11-Nov-2018 — The Prime Minister was touring the country to raise funds to steady the post-war ... The Prime Minister, Mr. Lal Bahadur Shastri and the Nizam of Hyderabad ... at the airport when the ageing ex-ruler came to greet India's Prime Minister. ... The October 1965 National Defence Gold Bonds had the additional ...

    The devious case of the Nizam's fund- The New Indian Express

    https://www.newindianexpress.com › opinions › nov › t...
    24-Nov-2019 — This ends an interesting chapter about the annexation of Hyderabad State ... of India branch in London in October 1947 at the instance of Nawab ... On January 3, 1962, the Nizam wrote to Home Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri proposing a ... the Nizam wrote to Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, stating that he had ...

    ===========================================

    3-
    In order to conserve foreign exchange, the Government decided to stop importing gold with effect from October 1,1990, and asked the SBI to use confiscated gold lying in the government mint for use by jewellery exporters.04-Sep-2013
    05-Apr-2017 — In July 1991, the RBI pledged 46.91 tonnes of gold with the Bank of ... India had managed to get a bit of a breather with the first tranche of $755 ...
    National sentiments were outraged and there was public outcry when it was learned that the government had pledged the country's entire gold reserves against ...
    05-Jul-2017 — MUMBAI: Many now know the foreign exchange crisis India went through in the late 80s and early 90s which led to the shameful act of the government pledging its gold reserves to avoid default on overseas payment obligations.

    4 reforms that pulled India back after it ran out of money in ...

    https://economictimes.indiatimes.com › ... › Policy
    21-Jul-2016 — By June 1991, India had less than $1 billion foreign reserves, just ... by the oil shock of 1990-91, meant India was suddenly paying more for fuel ... India did not have enough forex to conduct business with the rest of the world.

    From 5 To 500: India's Forex Reserves Journey Since 1991

    https://www.bloombergquint.com › Opinion
    16-Jun-2020 — India's forex reserves have seen many ups and downs over the years ... forex reserves are not immediately in focus as India does not face an ...




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    { IN 1947 IF ONE WANTED TO BUY ESSENTIALS LIKE PENCIL ,PEN OR CUPS AND PLATES IT WAS MOSTLY FOREIGN MADE AVAILABLE .
    Sheffield plates-made in england
      PENCILS WERE IMPORTED FROM GERMANY BY 'STAEDTLER' COMPANY
    Image result for 'SWAN' PENS.
    WHILE PENS WERE MADE IN U.S.A. --'SWAN' PENS.
    CUP AND PLATES-MOSTLY ENGLISH MADE WERE AVAILABLE AT THE CORNER STORE .ALL MEDICINES WERE IMPORTED.

    How India taught herself to make good pens and inkNOV 25 ,2021

    https://ub24news.com › Trending News
    3 hours ago — Not an agronomist or meteorologist but someone with knowledge of the fountain pen industry.
    VEHICLES(INCLUDING CYCLES!)
    Raleigh advert from 1940.

    WERE IMPORTED [EXCEPT INDIAN MADE BULLOCK CARTS !].EVEN PINS AND SAFETY PINSImage result for SAFETY PINS 1950 MADE IN ENGLAND WERE MADE OUTSIDE INDIA .

    this song made at that time shows it all;shoe from japan,dress from england ;hat from russi(Russia);Then imports were cut down drastically and MAKE IN INDIA was made the policy
    5:03

    Mera Joota Hai Japani (HD) - Raj Kapoor Evergreen Hit Karaoke Song - Shree 420 - Mukesh Hits

    WHEN INDIA MADE OR RATHER IMPORTED FROM ENGLAND('MORRIS' CAR) AND NAMED IT HINDUSTAN IN 1951Image result for ('MORRIS' CAR) AND NAMED IT HINDUSTAN IN 1951(STILL LATER RENAMED IT AS AMBASSADOR)
    1948 Hindustan 10

    1951 HINDUSTAN CAR{ IMPORTED FROM ENGLAND AS 'MORRIS' AND RENAMED 'HINDUSTAN'}


    [THE FIRST CAR "MADE"IN INDIA]
    LATER MODELS WERE NAMED-'LAND MASTER'
    Hindustan Ambassador - Wikipedia
    Hindustan Landmaster model
    AND 'AMBASSADOR'

    Morris Motors joint venture

    Hindustan Ambassador, later model

    ;IT WAS AN EVENT AS UNBELIEVABLE AS MAN'S FIRST FLIGHT TO MOON!!THE PRICE OF A NEW HINDUSTAN CAR WAS 8500/RUPEES[ABOUT $130] BUT MOST COULD NOT AFFORD TO BUY IT [SALARY OF A PEON 50-100RS;LOWER CLERK 100-300 ;UPPER CLERK 200 500 ;AND HIGHER OFFICERS 500 TO 1000/MONTH];I.C.S(LATER NAMED I.A.S) OFFICER SALARY WAS 5000/AND UPWARDS [never heard of corruption among I.C.S. officers and higher echelon officers then; as opposed to the present condition in INDIA]

    Social indicators were equally poor;

    illiteracy was as high as 84%;

    public health services were inadequate to face even epidemics such as influenza, malaria and cholera. Some efforts were made by the state to prevent epidemics like malaria which continued to revisit again and again.

    The mortality rate remained high at around 27 per thousand in 1947. Children cried for milk but mothers could not feed them. Famines devastated human lives, adding to the interminable misery in a barren wasteland.
    IT WAS COMMON THOSE DAYS TO SEE ;STARVING PEOPLE



    http://pazhayathu.blogspot.com/2010/05/15-famines-under-british-rule-indians.html

    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
    The first task of the Indian Government, in the immediate post-independence period, was to improve the material and human conditions of life by motivating rapid growth in a stagnant economy and to set the country on a path for higher growth with social justice



    India initiated planning for national economic development with the establishment of the Planning Commission, in 1950.


    The aim of the First Five Year Plan (1950-56) was to raise domestic savings for growth and help the economy resurrect itself from the twisted wreckage cause by colonial exploitation and the aftermath of Partition


    The real break with the past in planning came with the Second Five Year Plan, celebrated as the Nehru-Mahalanobis Plan).


    The industrialisation strategy, articulated by Professor Mahalanobis, placed emphasis on the development of heavy industries and envisaged a dominant role for the public sector in the economy. The entrepreneurial role of the state was evoked to develop the industrial sector.


    Commanding heights of economy were entrusted to the public sector.


    In brief, the emphasis of the first three Five Year Plans, was on economic growth with marginal stress on institutional changes like land reforms. The objectives of industrial policy were :- a high growth rate, national self-reliance, reduction of foreign dominance, building up of indigenous capacity, encouraging small-scale industry, bringing about balanced regional development, prevention of concentration of economic power, reduction of income inequalities and control of the economy by the state
    .
    first 5 Year Plan in India (1951 – 56){TOTAL AMOUNT ALLOTED 2400 CRORE RUPEES}
    in 1950. The aim of the First Five Year Plan (1950-56) was to raise domestic savings for growth and help the economy resurrect itself from the twisted wreckage cause by colonial exploitation and the aftermath of Partition.

    • It was based on Harrod – Domar Model.
    • Community Development Program was launched in 1952.
    • Two – fold objectives were there :
    • To correct the disequilibrium in the economy caused by 3 main problems – influx of refugees, severe food shortage and mounting inflation.
    • To initiate a process of all – round balanced development to ensure a rising national income and a steady improvement in living standards.
    • Emphasized on Agriculture, Price Stability, Power and Transport.
    • It was more than a success, because of good harvests in the last two Years.
    Second Five Year Plan of India (1956 – 61){TOTAL AMOUNT ALLOTTED 4800 CRORE RUPEES}
    The real break with the past in planning came with the Second Five Year Plan, celebrated as the Nehru-Mahalanobis Plan). The industrialisation strategy, articulated by Professor Mahalanobis, placed emphasis on the development of heavy industries and envisaged a dominant role for the public sector in the economy. The entrepreneurial role of the state was evoked to develop the industrial sector. Commanding heights of economy were entrusted to the public sector.
    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
    • Also called ‘Mahalanobis Plan’ after its chief architect PC Mahalanobis. It was based on 1928 Soviet Model of Feldman.
    • Its emphasis was on economic stability. Agriculture target fixed in the first plan was almost achieved. Consequently, the agriculture sector got low priority in the second five Year plan.
    • Its objective was Rapid Industrialization, particularly basic and heavy industries such as iron and steel, heavy chemicals like nitrogenous fertilizers, heavy engineering and machine building industry.
    • Besides, the Industrial Policy of 1956 emphasized the role of Public Sector and accepted the establishment of a socialistic pattern of the society as the goal of economic policy.
    • Advocated huge imports which led to emptying of funds leading to foreign loans. It shifted basic emphasis from agriculture to industry far too soon. During this plan, price level increased by 30%, against a decline of 13% during the First Plan.
      Stamp: Hindustan Aircraft Factory, Bangalore (India) (Five Year Plan  1955-1957) Mi:IN 248,Sn:IN 264,Yt:IN 62,Sg:IN 364
      Product
      Hindustan Aircraft Factory, Bangalore ...
    Hindustan Aircraft Factory
    Here is the collection of some of the photos of Goa during pre-liberation days. Photos shows the Portuguese troops, their trainings, preparation to fight against the Indian army, freedom movement and demonstration by Goan Freedom fighters and Goan Satyagrahis.
    .

    Photo Courtesy: LIFE Magazine.

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    Goan Freedom Fighters
    Portuguese army in Goa arresting indian freedom fighters 1960s


    1961 Indian annexation of Goa:-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1961_Indian_annexation_of_Goa



    Prime-Minster Nehru vists INS Delhi before her voyage to Arabian sea. According to Indian intel the Portuguese have the naval defense of Goa, deployed four frigates each equipped with three 120mm guns and four multiple pompoms (automatic rapid firing guns), which patrolled the sea areas of all three enclaves. These ships were Afonso de Albuquerque, Bartholomeu Dias, Gonsalves Zarco and Joao de Lisboa.
    Brigadier Sagat Singh of India's Maroon Beret Parachute regiment accepts  the surrender of Portuguese forces at a military camp in Bambolim.» | Sagat,  Coroa
    Brigadier Sagat Singh of India's Maroon ...















    Brigadier Sagat Singh of India's Maroon Beret Parachute regiment accepts the
    surrender of Portuguese forces at a military camp in Bambolim.

    File:Vasco Da gama POW camp.jpg
    The Indian Chief of Army Staff, Gen. Pran Thapar (far right) with deposed Governor General of Portuguese India Manuel António Vassalo e Silva (seated centre) at a POW facility in Vasco Da Gama, Goa
    1961 Indo-Portuguese War | Pakistan Defence



















    1961
    Enthusiastic Goans cheering the victorious Indian soldiers at the conclusion of the war.

    The longest reigning colonial power, the Portuguese had held Goa for 451 years until India wrested it back on December 19, 1961.


    How A Little Church In Kerala Helped India Reach For The Stars

    http://natgeotraveller.in › how-a-little-church-in-kerala-...
    06-Oct-2015In India, ISRO equals space travel, and I've always wondered how we ... On the evening of 21 November 1962, the first rocket blasted off ...

    Dr. Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai (1963-1971) - ISRO

    https://www.isro.gov.in › about-isro › dr-vikram-ambal...
    Dr. Sarabhai was considered as the Father of the Indian space program; He was a ... flight was launched on November 21, 1963 with a sodium vapour payload.

    BARC activities for Indian Nuclear Power Program

    http://www.barc.gov.in › randd › artnp
    Of course, the third stage of nuclear power program envisages large scale power production from thorium, AHWR will provide enough experience for handling, ..
    ========================
    We (TIFR Automatic Calculator, TIFRAC, team) were inspired by the computer that was built at the University of Illinois, the Illiac computer. ... I remember the time when the first program ran in our computer…The jubilation that the TIFRAC and Apsara teams felt, is comparable to the time when Apsara went critical.1 day ago

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    Third Five Year Plan in India (1961 – 66){TOTAL AMOUNT ALLOTTED ABOUT 10000 CRORE RUPEES}
    • At its conception time, it was felt that Indian economy has entered a take – off stage. Therefore, its aim was to make India a ‘Self – Reliant’ and ‘Self – Generating’ Economy.
    • Also, it was realized from the experience of first two plans that agriculture should be given the top priority to suffice the requirements of export and industry.
    • The other objectives of the plan included the expansion of basic industries, optimum utilisation of country’s Labor power and reducing the inequalities of income and wealth.
    • Relied heavily on foreign aid (IMF).

    • Complete failure due to unforeseen misfortunes, :----
    • [1] Chinese aggression (1962):------

    Image result for Indian Chinese war 1962Image result for Indian Chinese war 1962
    Indian Chinese war 1962



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    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sino-Indian_War

    http://maddy06.blogspot.com/2008/03/lynching-of-krishna-menon.html

    Nehru, the architect of the Hindi-Chini bhai bhai festivity, had gone out of his way to propitiate communist China, accepting even the Chinese annexation of Tibet in a 1954 agreement without settling the Indo-Tibetan border. While Nehru thought he had bought peace with China by accepting Chinese rule over Tibet on the basis of his doctrine of panchshila, or the five principles of peaceful co-existence, Mao and his team read this both as a sign of India’s weakness and a licence to encroach on strategically important areas of Ladakh.


    It was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962. A disputed Himalayan border was the main pretext for war, but other issues played a role. There had been a series of violent border incidents after the 1959 Tibetan uprising, when India had granted asylum to the Dalai Lama. India initiated a Forward Policy in which it placed outposts along the border, including several north of the McMahon Line, the eastern portion of a Line of Actual Control proclaimed by Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai in 1959.
    • The Chinese launched simultaneous offensives in Ladakh and across the McMahon Line on 20 October 1962, coinciding with the Cuban Missile Crisis. Chinese troops advanced over Indian forces in both theatres, capturing Rezang la in Chushul in the western theatre, as well as Tawang in the eastern theatre. The war ended when the Chinese declared a ceasefire on 20 November 1962, and simultaneously announced its withdrawal from the disputed area.
      The Sino-Indian War is notable for the harsh conditions under which much of the fighting took place, entailling large-scale combat at altitudes of over 4,250 metres (14,000 feet). This presented enormous logistics problems for both sides. The Sino-Indian War was also noted for the non-deployment of the navy or air force by either the Chinese and Indian sides.

    (u.s.a.support for India was crucial)
    Kennedy
    • steamed not towards the East or South China Sea but towards the Bay of Bengal to serve as a psychological prop to the besieged Indians. John Kenneth Galbraith wrote in his memoirs, Ambassador's Journal, that he had, as U.S. Ambassador to India, recommended the despatch of the aircraft carrier to ease Indian nerves.
    • http://www.reversespins.com/fortyyears.html

    • US demand Once Beijing declared a unilateral cease-fire, the issue of U.S. arms sales to India got caught in the perennial and still-prevalent U.S. demand - that New Delhi open talks with Pakistan on Kashmir - forcing the Nehru government to hold five rounds of futile discussions with Islamabad as a quid pro quo for receiving low-line American arms. The Chinese aggression was seen in Washington as creating an opportunity for what America has always desired and still seeks to pursue -- closer and better ties with India while maintaining old bonds with Pakistan - to help promote 'regional stability'.


    • [2]---, Indo – Pak war (1965),:--

    • The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between India and Pakistan. This conflict became known as the Second Kashmir War fought by India and Pakistan over the disputed region of Kashmir, the first having been fought in 1947. The war began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against rule by India. The five-week war caused thousands of casualties on both sides. It ended in a United Nations (UN) mandated ceasefire and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration.
     
    The Pakistan Army's elite 1 Armoured Corps met its Waterloo in the Battle of Assal Uttar as they lost nearly 100 tanks, many of them being brand new M-48 Pattons. Bhikiwind was used as a temporary tank cemetery to house some 60 captured & destroyed M-48 Pattons, M-24 Chafees and M4 Shermans. The cemetery stood as a standing memorial to Pakistan's humiliating defeat in the battle of Assal Uttar.
     
    PPT - Battle of Khemkaran PowerPoint Presentation, free download -  ID:3025244
    PPT - Battle of Khemkaran PowerPoint ...Image result for Destroyed or abandoned Pakistani Patton and Sherman tanks on display near Khem Karan
    General Ayub Khan

    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Pakistani_War_of_1965:-- under the leadership of General Ayub Khan,
    • believed the Indian Army would be unable to defend itself against a quick military campaign in the disputed territory of Kashmir as the Indian military had suffered a loss to China in 1962.Pakistan believed that the population of Kashmir was generally discontented with Indian rule and that a resistance movement could be ignited by a few infiltrating saboteurs. Pakistan attempted to ignite the resistance movement by means of a covert infiltration, codenamed Operation Gibraltar The Pakistani infiltrators were soon discovered,

    • however, their presence reported by local Kashmiris, and the operation ended in a complete failure
    PL-480, or Public Law 480 is a law signed by President Eisenhower in 1954. It is also known as "Food for Peace" because it is the funding avenue by which US food can be used for overseas aid.
    1960 india:- Unfortunately, the country was dirt poor at the time. It did not have enough money to import all the food it needed to feed it's citizens. Consequently, food shortages were commonplace, and a "rationing" system was introduced by the government. Everyone was allotted about 4 pounds of rice, 1 pound of sugar and wee bits of other foodstuff every month. You were given a "ration card" by a government agency, and you took that card to officially sanctioned (but privately held) "ration shops". Naturally, the process was very corrupt: acquiring the ration cards was a monumental feat, the "ration shops" were seldom open, and they would run out of food very quickly when they did open. Those with plenty of time on their hands (e.g. children) were tasked with waiting outside ration shops in case they opened.
    price of food was beyond the reach of ordinary man SOME MADE FUN OF THE SITUATION AS "SHIP TO MOUTH EXISTENCE"
    The Indian government was doing all that it could possibly have done to mitigate ~ food hoarding was a serious crime, for instance; and the airwaves was flooded with public service announcements about staying calm. But, in the end, when supplies get tight, prices tend to skyrocket.

    It is here that PL-480 came in handy. I grew up listening and reading stories about the "PL-480 ships" of america carrying rice from the United States. The passage of these ships was headline news on the airwaves ~ because their arrival would coincide with millions of people being able to eat. Magically, when the Pl-480 ships docked, the market prices for rice and wheat would ease, and the "ration shops" would open. PL-480 made the difference between food riots and dinner for everyone.
    40% of the food aid under the PL-480 program between 1955 (the first year of the program) and 1973 was directed towards India. Photo and audio clip of President Eisenhower and s.k. patil; at the signing of the 1960 Food for Peace agreement
    1960 Press Photo President Eisenhower and India's S.K. Patil - Historic  Images
    Product
    1960 Press Photo President Eisenhower ...
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    between the United States and India. The agreement not only sent rice and wheat but helped to establish food reserves in India

    Statistical Overview
    The United States supplied more than $52 billion of food aid worldwide over the 43-year period 1954
    (when PL 480 was enacted) through 1996. The annual commitment averaged $1.2 billion a year in current
    dollars.
    Fifty-nine percent of the food was provided under PL 480, mainly to governments. This
    “program” food aid was generally sold on the open market to anyone with money.

    When did parthenium reach India?
    This alien weed (congress grass or parthenium,) is believed to have been introduced into India as contaminants in PL 480 wheat (Public Law 480 passed in 1954 to give food grains to developing countries for eliminating starvation and malnutrition) imported from the USA in the 1950s.27-Apr-2011

    - The American who helped India conquer hunger:----


    young Borlaugh















    • Borlaug first visited India in 1963. His HYV seed Leema Rojo was the most successful variety that increased the yield of wheat in Punjab manifold.
      "The high-yielding variety was reddish-brown and did not find favour with a lot of people. Under Borlaug's guidance, Punjab Agricultural University (PAU) professor Kalyan Singh crossbred it with Indian varieties and evolved a new type called Kalyan.
      This became highly successful," former PAU Vice-Chancellor K.S. Aulukh told HT. The Green Revolution, which first took place in Punjab, spread rapidly to other parts of India. As a result, the country achieved self-sufficiency in food production by the early 1990s.

    • Prices increased by 36% in 5 – Years.Hence, third plan failed in every respect.
    Three Annual Plans (1966 – 69)
    • Plan holiday for 3 Years.
    • The prevailing crisis in agriculture and serious food shortage necessitated the emphasis on agriculture during the Annual Plans.
    • During these plans a whole new agricultural strategy involving wide – spread distribution of High – Yielding Varieties (HYVs) of seeds, the extensive use of fertilizers, exploitation of irrigation potential and soil conservation was put into action to tide – over the crisis in agricultural production.
    • During the Annual Plans, the economy basically absorbed the shocks given during the Third Plan, making way for a planned growth.
    • M. S. Swaminathan transformed agriculture in India in the 1960s
    • Swaminathan is credited with introducing new varieties of high-yield wheat to India during the 1960s and 1970s, catapulting the country from dependence on foreign-grain shipments to food independence within a few years. With about 60% of India's population employed in agriculture, it is difficult to overstate the significance of Swaminathan's contribution to his country.





    287K views 3 weeks ago
    "When India needed help, Britain told us to take a walk. Look how things have changed today." Ambassador Deepak Vohra ...
    Fourth Five Year Plan India (1969 – 74)

    • The Fourth Plan set before itself the two principal objectives – growth with stability and progress towards self – reliance.
    • Main emphasis on agriculture’s growth rate so that a chain reaction can start.
    • Fared well in the first 2 Years with record production, last 3 Years failure because of poor monsoon.
    • Had to tackle the influx of Bangladeshi refugees before and after 1971 Indo – Pak war.
    By the end of May 1971 the number rose to 3 million.
    refugee-exodus.jpg
    Bengali refugees heading to India to flee persecution during the 1971 war of liberation-
    refugee3.jpg
    By June 15, the number of refugees had gone up to 5.8 million, of whom 3.7 million were living in camps.

    Indian T-55 tanks on their way to Dhaka The United States supported Pakistan both politically and materially. President Richard Nixon and his Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. Nixon sent military supplies to Pakistan, routing them through Jordan and Iran.while also encouraging China to increase its arms supplies to Pakistan. The Nixon administration also ignored reports it received of the "genocidal" activities of the Pakistani Army in East Pakistan, most notably the Blood telegram. This prompted widespread criticism and condemnation both by Congress and in the international press. When Pakistan's defeat in the eastern sector seemed certain, Nixon ordered the USS Enterprise USS Enterprise into the Bay of Bengal. The Enterprise arrived on station on 11 December 1971. It has been documented that Nixon even persuaded Iran and Jordan to send their F-86, F-104 and F-5 fighter jets in aid of Pakistan. On 6 December and 13 December, the Soviet Navy dispatched two groups of ships
    Soviet Navy dispatched two groups of ships
    and a submarine, armed with nuclear missiles, from Vladivostok; they trailed U.S. Task Force 74 into the Indian Ocean from 18 December 1971 until 7 January 1972. The Soviets also had a nuclear submarine
    The Soviets also had a nuclear submarine
    to help ward off the threat posed by USS Enterprise task force in the Indian Ocean.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    This video is about the Russian role in 1971


    ALL YOU TUBE VIDEOS ARE NOW REMOVED BY ?AMERICAN AND BRITISH HACKERS THINKING PEOPLE WILL FORGET THAT EPISODE;THIS BELOW VIDEOS FROM FACE BOOK 

    Watch How Russia Helped India In... - Say "No" To Sold Media

    01-Jul-2019 — ... at 4:25 PM · Facebook for Android ·. Watch How Russia Helped India In 1971 War! Like. Love. Wow. 124K. ·7.9K Comments·94K Shares.



    y. Indo-Pakistani conflict and about the Soviet-American opposition in Indian Ocean. It's a part of the Russian TV program 'Strike Force'. The translation is mine.
    In 1971, December, 3 the World has become an attestor to a new war between India and Pakistan. At afternoon the Pakistani aviation has strike the Indian cities and airstrips. The Indian PM Indira Gandhi put the country in emergency state and gave the order to nip the aggression. Hard clashes were started on the ground in the air, and at the sea. Historic document: "Confident. December, 10, 1971. Moscow. For the DM Marshal Andrey Grechko. According to the information from our attaché in Delhi in the first day of conflict the Indian destroyer 'Rajput' has sunk a Pakistani submarine by depth charges. In December, 4 and 9, the Indian fast boats have destroyed and damaged 10 Pakistani battle ships and vessels by the P-15 missiles. In addition 12 oil storages was burned in flame. The Commander of the Military Intelligence Service Gen. Pyotr Ivashutin". In the same day the Soviet Intelligence has reported that the British Naval group with the leadership of 'Eagle' carrier went closer to the territorial waters of India. The Soviet Government immediately sent a unit of battle ships under the leadership of counter-admiral Vladimir Kruglyakov for helping to the fraternal country. Vladimir Kruglyakov, the former (1970-1975) Commander of the 10th Operative Battle Group (Pacific Fleet) remembers: "I received the order from the Chief Commander 'To not allow access of the American Navy to the Indian military objects'. - On the way of American Navy stood the Soviet cruisers, destroyers and atomic submarines equipped with anti-ship missiles. Vladimir Kruglyakov, the former (1970-1975) Commander of the 10th Operative Battle Group (Pacific Fleet) remembers: "We encircled them and I have targeted the 'Enterprise' by missiles. I have blocked them and didnt allow enclosing to Karachi, nor to Chittagong or Dhaka". On the Soviet ships then were only the missiles with limited to 300 km range. Thus, to be sure the rival is under the hindsight the Russian commanders have had to take the risk of maximal enclosing to the American fleet. Vladimir Kruglyakov, the former (1970-1975) Commander of the 10th Operative Battle Group (Pacific Fleet) remembers: "The Chief Commander has order me: 'Lift the subs when they (the Americans) appear!' It was done to demonstrate, there are all the needed in Indian Ocean, including the nuclear submarines. I have lifted them, and they recognized it. Then, we intercepted the American communication. The commander of the Carrier Battle Group was then the counter-admiral Dimon Gordon. He sent the report to the 7th American Fleet Commander: 'Sir, we are too late. There are the Russian atomic submarines here, and a big collection of the battleships'. The war was then two weeks long, and it has finished by Pakistani forces surrendering.


    USA's Seventh Fleet's Attempt to enter the Bay of Bengal and ...

    vimeo.com/60690887
    Feb 27, 2013
    The Soviet Government immediately sent a unit of battle ships under the ... not allow access of the American ...

    Translation of the Russian script (from Omi Rahman Pial):
    In the same day the Soviet Intelligence has reported that the British Naval group with the leadership of 'Eagle' carrier went closer to the territorial waters of India. The Soviet Government immediately sent a unit of battle ships under the leadership of counter-admiral Vladimir Kruglyakov for helping to the fraternal country.
    Vladimir Kruglyakov, the former (1970-1975) Commander of the 10th Operative Battle Group (Pacific Fleet) remembers:
    "I received the order from the Chief Commander 'To not allow access of the American Navy to the Indian military objects'.
    - On the way of American Navy stood the Soviet cruisers, destroyers and atomic submarines equipped with anti-ship missiles.
    Vladimir Kruglyakov, the former (1970-1975) Commander of the 10th Operative Battle Group (Pacific Fleet) remembers:
    "We encircled them and I have targeted the 'Enterprise' by missiles. I have blocked them and didnt allow enclosing to Karachi, nor to Chittagong or Dhaka".
    On the Soviet ships then were only the missiles with limited to 300 km range. Thus, to be sure the rival is under the hindsight the Russian commanders have had to take the risk of maximal enclosing to the American fleet.
    Vladimir Kruglyakov, the former (1970-1975) Commander of the 10th Operative Battle Group (Pacific Fleet) remembers:
    "The Chief Commander has order me: 'Lift the subs when they (the Americans) appear!' It was done to demonstrate, there are all the needed in Indian Ocean, including the nuclear submarines. I have lifted them, and they recognized it. Then, we intercepted the American communication. The commander of the Carrier Battle Group was then the counter-admiral Dimon Gordon. He sent the report to the 7th American Fleet Commander: 'Sir, we are too late. There are the Russian atomic submarines here, and a big collection of the battleships'.
    The war was then two weeks long, and it has finished by Pakistani forces surrendering.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- A recently-published book ‘Nixon and Kissinger: Partners in Power’ has thousands of pages of national security files and telephone transcripts of then US national security adviser Henry Kissinger and 2,800 hours of the Nixon tapes in it that has disclosed the US mentality towards India at that time. American author and historian Robert Dallek has exposed in the book that how Nixon and Kissinger were disappointed with Indian policies and how they tried to bring China in order to prevent the formation of Bangladesh. At that time, US President Nixon had called Indians as a slippery, treacherous people and Kissinger had called Indians as insufferably arrogant. According to the book, then Indian PM Indira Gandhi had seen little prospect of any political settlement in this matter. However, she had told Kissinger that she did not want to use force and was open to suggestions
    Image result for PRESIDENT NIXON WITH PRIME MINISTER INDIRA GANDHI
    PRESIDENT NIXON WITH PRIME MINISTER INDIRA GANDHI
    . Indira Gandhi, the then PM, had showed great courage in moving forward to establish Indian supremacy in the region despite of watching two great powers standing against India. "The Indians are bastards," Mr Kissinger said shortly before the India-Pakistan war of 1971, it was revealed this week. Mr Kissinger also called former Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi a "bitch" during the conversation. At the time, the US saw India as too close to the Soviet Union. The conversation was revealed in documents the US State Department declassified on US foreign policy of the time. According to the documents, President Nixon called Indira Gandhi an "old witch" in a conversation with Mr Kissinger. http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Henry_Kissinger
    Henry Kissinger
    Friday, 1 July, 2005,
    Former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger has expressed regret over anti-India comments he made to former US President Richard Nixon. Mr Kissinger, 82, has now told a the private Indian television channel NDTV that his comments did not reflect American policy during the 1970s. "I regret that these words were used. I have extremely high regard for Mrs Gandhi as a statesman," he said. The fact that we were at cross purposes at that time was inherent in the situation but she was a great leader who did great things for her country."
    Image result for surrendered Pakistani Troops standing for inspection
    Image result for surrendered Pakistani Troops standing for inspection
    Surrendered Pakistani Troops standing for inspection.

    Pakistan Army 2nd Surrender ceremony before Indian Army in ...

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQb6mhgBVmE
    Sep 26, 2010 - Uploaded by WarPilgrim
    Brigadier Baqir Siddiqui, Chief of Staff, Eastern Command of Pakistan Army surrenders with his 12000 men ...
    Pakistan Army 2nd Surrender ceremony before Indian Army in Bangladesh 1971  war - India's Stories From Indian Perspectives
    Pakistan Army 2nd Surrender ceremony ...
    indictales.com

     
    Lieutenant General A. A. K. Niazi (right) signing the Instrument of Surrender while surrendering to Lieutenant General Jagjit
    Singh Arora of the Indian Army (left)
    The True Story of India's Decision to Release 93,000 Pakistani POWs After  1971 War
    93,000 Pakistani POWs After 1971 War
    thewire.in

    PAKISTANI PRISONER OF WAR SOLDIERS
    PAKISTANI PRISONERS, 1971. 
Pakistanis captured by Bangladeshi pro-independence forces at a prison camp in Kashmir at the conclusion of the Bangladesh Liberation War, December 1971.


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    PAKISTANI PRISONERS, 1971. Pakistanis captured by Bangladeshi pro-independence forces at a prison camp in Kashmir at the conclusion of the Bangladesh Liberation War, December 1971.

    Pakistan stamp depicting the 90,000 POWs in Indian camps
    Pakistan stamp depicting the 90,000 POWs in Indian camps
    • THIS DEFEAT WAS A TERRIBLE CALAMITY FOR PAKISTAN.THEY FOUND THEY CANNOT DEFEAT INDIA IN A REGULAR WAR ; IN ORDER TO TAKE Revenge and AT THE SAME TIME TO HARASS INDIA; SO DECLARED AN UNOFFICIAL WAR :-
      Gabbbar on Twitter: "Pic1: Headlines in Pakistani newspapers today Pic2:  Headline in Pakistani Newspaper in 1971 post the surrender… "
    • ;PAKISTAN HAD STARTED THE TERRORIST CAMPS .
    • Hamid Gul, HI(M), SBt, (Urdū:حمید گل) (born 20 November 1936) is a retired Pakistani Army three star general known for heading the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), the premier Pakistani intelligence agencyHe has acknowledged being a member of banned militant organization Ummah Tameer-e-Nau. The United States government has included Hamid Gul's name in a list of 4 former ISI officers for inclusion in the list of international terrorists that was sent to UN Secretary General, but China refused.
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamid_Gul
    • Gul has been informed by a senior official in Pakistan's Foreign Ministry that he had been placed on a U.S. watch list of global terrorists, along with several others. He was shown a U.S. document that detailed several charges against him, including allegations that he had ties to al-Qaeda and the Taliban
    • BUT SOME TALIBAN TRAINED BY PAKISTAN; HAS NOW TURNED AROUND AND HAS STARTED BOMBING THE 'FEEDING HAND'

    • PAKISTAN HAS ONLY ONE PERCEIVED ENEMY THAT IS INDIA ;BUT WHY THEY HAVE ACCUMULATED AN ARSENAL OF NUCLEAR BOMBS MORE THAN INDIA'S?! . AND STILL MAKING MORE ?? SUSPICIOUS

    • THEY HAVE KEPT THE 'FIRST USE OPTION' MEANS; THEY CAN AND WILL USE NUCLEAR WEAPONS AGAINST INDIA; IF AT ANY MOMENT THEY THINK THEY ARE THREATENED ;WHETHER IT IS A REAL THREAT OR NOT

    • PAKISTANS NUCLEAR WEAPONS ARE STILL UNDER CONTROL AND COMMAND OF ITS ARMY AND I.S.I.COMBINE. AND PAKISTAN'S ARMY/ISI HAS NOT FORGOTTEN THE TERRIBLE DEFEAT AT BANGLADESH ,1972

    • WILL THEY USE NUCLEAR BOMBS AGAINST INDIA ,USING FIRST USE OPTION ;ALL 120+++ OF THEIR BOMBS TOGETHER ;FOR AN OVERKILL REVENGE?
    • WILL THEY HAND OVER THE BOMBS TO TERRORISTS BEING TRAINED BY THEM?
    • OR WILL THEY SELL IT TO IRAN?TO NORTH KOREA?
    • NORTH KOREA SUPPLIED PAKISTAN WITH MOST OF ITS ROCKETS
    • THIS IS THE ONLY DANGER TO INDIA NOW
    • Nuke India if necessary [Mon, 02 Feb 2009 20:31:58 GMT] Ex-ISI chief:[news item collected from internet]

      Former Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) chief Hamid Gul says Islamabad should not hesitate to use nuclear weapons against New Delhi.

      "It is the matter of country's defense and existence, therefore, Pakistan should never be hesitant to use its atomic capabilities if need arises," a Press TV correspondent quoted Gul as saying on Sunday.

      The ex-ISI chief who was speaking at the "Defense of Pakistan" conference held in Islamabad added that Pakistan's inferior military might would trigger the need for the use of nuclear weapons.
      Front row, from left: Major Gen. Hamid Gul, director general of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate (ISI), Director of Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Willian Webster; Deputy Director for Operations Clair George; an ISI colonel; and senior (CIA) official, Milt Bearden at a (mujahedeen training) camp in North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan in 1987


      .[1] Afghanistan's Untold Story
      http://britishafganistangameindianhunt.blogspot.com/


      [2] From the CIA to the ISI to the Lashkar-e-Taiba: Mumbai Terror’s Afghan Roots
      : http://www.rawa.org/temp/runews/2008/12/16/from-the-cia-to-the-isi-to-the-lashkar-e-taiba-mumbai-terrorand-8217-s-afghan-roots.html#ixzz1YmGykqe2



      {India's stand on ISI vindicated: Krishna
      25 Sep 2011, 0909 hrs IST, AGENCIES
      India on Sunday (September 25) said it was good that the US recognised the link between the Haqqani network and the Pakistan intelligence agency ISI, both of which have been blamed for the assassination of former Afghan President Burhanudin Rabbani.

      "We have always been saying it. I am glad US finds it is also suffered under the ISI," External Affairs Minister S M Krishna said in New York.

      The two countries will discuss their bilateral relationship when Krishna meets Secretary of State Hillary Clinton tomorrow. Krishna said it was fine to differ with the US on issues like Syria and Libya, noting that bilateral relations depended on entirely different set of conditions.

      "We don't have to agree on everything," he said.

      Referring to support of nations like China in India's bid for permanent membership of the Security Council, Krishna said "this is a question which India is very serious about."

      He noted that the restructuring of the UNSC will be a long and arduous journey. "But India believes that ultimately it will find its rightful place in the Security Council," he added.

      Krishna met the Indian Ambassador and its Consul Generals in the country and discussed ways to improve the consular services and deal with public grievances. }

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


      WASHINGTON: Making clear the United States was not buying Pakistan's explanation of hedging against India, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton has bluntly told its key ally it would not tolerate terrorists in Pakistan's safe haven.

      "In recent months, we've seen the Haqqani Network turn from being a fighting force to one that is deliberately targeting American targets," like the US embassy in Kabul, she told in an interview in Kabul on Thursday.

      "We cannot tolerate that," Clinton said. "And the safe haven in Pakistan from which they launch these attacks has nothing to do with the Taliban coming back into Afghanistan."

      "It has nothing to do with Pakistan hedging against India or whatever the explanation is," she said according to a transcript of the interview released by the State Department.

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The Simla Agreement-1
    Fifth Five Year Plan of India (1974 – 79) the Fifth Plan ( 1974-79) corrected its course by initiating a programme emphasising growth and distribution
    • The Fifth Plan prepared and launched by DD Dhar proposed to achieve two main objectives vizard, ‘Removal of Poverty’ (Garibi Hatao) and ‘Attainment of Self Reliance’, through promotion of high rate of growth, better distribution of income and a very significant growth in the domestic rate of savings.
    • National Program of Minimum needs was initiated in which Primary Education, Drinking Water; Medical facilities in rural areas, Nourishing Food, Land for the Houses of Landless Laborers, Rural Roads, Electrification of the Villages and Cleanliness of the dirty suburbs were included.
    • The plan was terminated in 1978 (instead of 1979) when Janta Government, came to power.
    Rolling Plan in India (1978 – 80)
    • There were 2 Sixth Plans – One by Janta Government (for 78 – 83) which was in operation for 2 Years only and the other by the Congress Government when it returned to power in 1980. The Janta Government Plan is also called ‘Rolling Plan’.
    • The focus of the plan was enlargement of the employment potential in agriculture and allied activities, encouragement to household and small industries producing consumer goods for consumption and to raise the incomes of the lowest income classes through minimum needs program.
    Indian Sixth Five Year Plan (1980 – 85) Objectives : Increase in National Income, Modernization of Technology, Ensuring continuous decrease in Poverty and Unemployment, Population Control through Family Planning, etc. Seventh Five Year Plan (1985 – 90) During the period 1980-95, GDP growth was more than 5% per annum
    • The Seventh Plan emphasized policies and programs which aimed at rapid growth in food – grains production, increased employment opportunities and productivity within the framework of basic tenants of planning.
    • It was a great success, the economy recorded 6% growth rate against the targeted 5%.
    Eighth Five Year Plan of India (1992 – 97) The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97), was launched against the backdrop of a balance of payments crisis, leading to the debt trap experienced in 1991. The crisis led to a second rethinking about our economic strategies and far reaching changes were effected. India launched a major programme of economic liberalization (stabilization and structural adjustment) in July 1991,
    • The Eighth Plan was postponed by 2 Years because of political upheavals at the Centre and it was launched after a worsening Balance of Payment (BoP) position inflation during 1990 – 91.
    • The plan undertook various drastic policy measures to combat the bad economic situation and to undertake an annual average growth of 5.6%.
    • Some of the main economic performances during Eighth Plan period were rapid economic growth, high growth of agriculture and allied sector, and manufacturing sector, growth in exports and imports, improvement in trade and current account deficit.
    • The most notable feature of the Eighth Plan period was that the GDP grew at an average rate of 6.8% exceeding the target growth rate of 5.6%.
    Ninth Five Year Plan of India launched in the 50th. year of India's independence with an ambition to achieve 7% - 8% rate of economic growth. The Ninth Plan, without minimising the value of industrialisation, gave priority to agriculture and rural development, provision of basic minimum services, creation of productive employment, empowerment of women and other weaker sections, promotion of Panchayati Raj Institutions etc
    • It was developed in the context of four important dimensions: Quality of life, generation of productive employment, regional balance and self-reliance.
    Appraisal of the Ninth Plan in India
    • Growth rate of GDP during the plan was 5.4% per annum as against the target of 6.5%.
    • Agriculture grew by 2.1% as against the target of 4.2% p.a.
    • Industrial growth was 4.5% as against the target of 3% p.a.
    • Exports grew by 7.4% (target was 14.55%) and imports grew by 6.6% (target was 12.2% p.a.).
    • Services grew at the rate of 7.8% p.a.
    Tenth Five Year Plan in India(2002 - 2007)
    • The major objectives were as under:
    • To attain a growth rate of 8%.
    • Reduction of poverty ratio to 20% by 2007 and to 1.0% by 2012.
    • Providing gainful high quality employment to the addition to the labor force over the Tenth Plan period.
    • Universal access to primary education by 2007.
    • Reduction in gender gaps in literacy and wage rates by at least 50% by 2007.
    • Reduction in decadal rate of population growth between 2001 and 2011 to 16.2%.
    • Increase in literacy rate to 72% within the plan period and to 80% by 2012.
    • Reduction of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) to 45 per 1000 live births by 2007 and to 28 by 2012.
    • Reduction of Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) to 20 per 1000 live births by 2007 and to 10 by 2012.
    • Increase in forest and tree cover to 25% by 2007 and 33% by 2012.
    • All villages to have sustained access to potable drinking water by 2012.
    • Cleaning of all major polluted rivers by 2007 and other notified stretches by 2012.
    • The plans have traditionally focused on setting national targets, but it has been found that there is a variation in the performance of different States. The Tenth Plan focused on ways and means of correcting the regional imbalance.
    • Currently, eight States, with poor health and demographic indices, constitute 44.7% of India's population. Special efforts were made during the Tenth Plan to enable these States to fully achieve their potential.
    • The plan laid great emphasis on agriculture since growth in this sector is likely to lead to the widest dissemination of benefits, especially to the rural poor including agricultural labor.
    • The growth strategy of the Tenth Plan seeked to ensure the rapid growth of those sectors which are most likely to create high quality employment opportunities. These included such sectors as construction, real estate, and housing, transport, Small Scale Industries, modern retailing, entertainment, IT-enabled services, etc.
    The long term growth rate of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during the period 1950-51 to 1994-95 was around 3.8% per annum while population increased at the rate of 2%. The turn around in growth rates for macro aggregates started in the 1980's
    In terms of growth, the performance of agriculture has been quite impressive in the post-independence period (a long-term growth on 2.7 % growth per annum) as compared with the pre-independence period (0.3% per annum) An important feature of the 1980's and the 1990's, however, is that there has been much more equitable spread of agricultural growth. Not having done well during the early years of the Green Revolution, many of the states like Assam, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal, showed significant growth in the 1980's. Oilseeds have also gained in the dry belt of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra. Thus, there seems to be a reduction in regional disparities in output growth during the 1980's and 1990's.
    NOW THE FUTURE:-A CITIBANK report said.:-
    In view of its continuing robust growth, India is expected to be the world’s largest economy by 2050, surpassing China and the United States, a Citi report said.
    “China should overtake the US to become the largest economy in the world by 2020, then be overtaken by India by 2050,” financial services group Citi said the report The estimates are based on Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), an economic growth indicator that takes into account the purchasing power of each country’s currency, instead of the prevailing exchange rate conversion. Indian economy is expected to be nearly $85.97 trillion on PPP basis by 2050 from $3.92 trillion in 2010, Citi said.Going by the report, India would surpass the US — currently the world’s largest economy — to become the second largest by 2040.“We expect India to overtake Japan to become the third largest economy in the world by 2015,” it noted. In terms of PPP, Indian economy — valued at $3.78 trillion — was at the fourth place in 2009. The country was behind the US, China and Japan, according to the World Bank.
    The report said India’s population of working age is expected to grow by 40.7 per cent between 2010 and 2050.India has successfully raised its aggregate savings rate to levels that would allow sustained high levels of domestic capital formation (the domestic saving rate averaged 34.4 per cent over 2006-2009 and the gross domestic investment rate 32.4 per cent), the report added.Citi expects India to overtake Japan to become the third largest economy in the world by 2015, but otherwise forecast little change in the order of the ten largest economies over the next five years. 1. India: $85.97 trillion Citi expects India’s real per capita GDP to grow at 6.4% p.a. over the 40-year period between 2010 and 2050 (7.2% p.a. over the next 10 years and at rates of 7.7% p.a. between 2020 and 2030 and 5.2% p.a. between 2030 and 2050). As a result, India is expected to become the largest economy in the world by 2050, overtaking China and the US in the process. Its demographic evolution is at least 35 years behind that of China with a high (but falling) birth rate and a large and growing population of young workers: India’s population of working age is expected to grow by 40.7 per cent between 2010 and 2050. India’s assets are many: It has successfully raised its aggregate savings rate to levels that would allow sustained high levels of domestic capital formation (the domestic saving rate averaged 34.4 per cent over 2006-2009 and the gross domestic investment rate 32.4 per cent). Its education system, while not without weaknesses, produces a large pool of cheap, internationally competitive, English-speaking graduates, allowing India to build up a comparative advantage in certain sectors, such as IT or business processes. This ’demographic dividend’ can, of course, become an economic curse if the young are not educated and trained properly and if the domestic capital formation rate is not high enough to create an adequate supply of productive jobs. 2. China: $80.02 trillion For China Citi predicts an average growth rate of 5.0 per cent p.a. for real per capita GDP over the period 2010 2050, lower than in the recent past, but still highly respectable - even more so after two decades of largely uninterrupted near double-digit increases. China’s real per capita GDP ranking in 2010 is 45th, at $7,430. This is quite far above the poorest countries now, but even more distant still from the rich industrial nations. A lot of convergence therefore remains to be done. 3. United States: $39.07 trillion The US economy is the largest in the world currently, with an estimated 2008 gross domestic product (GDP) of $14.3 trillion (a quarter of nominal global GDP and a fifth of global GDP at purchasing power parity). But its dominance is seen declining as nations like India and China show rapid and sustained growth to become the world leaders over the next four decades…. Following will be the 10 largest economies in the world in 2050: 1. India: $85.97 trillion 2. China: $80.02 trillion 3. United States: $39.07 trillion 4. Indonesia: $13.93 trillion 5. Brazil: $11.58 trillion 6. Nigeria: $9.51 trillion 7. Russia: $7.77 trillion 8. Mexico: $6.57 trillion 9. Japan: $6.48 trillion 10. Egypt: $6.02 trillion.
    NEHRU NEVER THOUGHT FOR A MOMENT IN 1947; THAT POOR INDIA CAN BECOME NUMBER ONE IN THE WORLD

    Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and his six colleagues who were sworn in on Sept. 2, 1946 as members of the Interim Government met the press informally the same afternoon. Pandit Nehru addressed the press for half an hour on the tasks before the new Government formed by him

    1946-Members of India's Interim Government Government officials outside the Council Room in the Vicerory's House, New Delhi, shortly before their swearing-in ceremony. (L to r) Mr. Sarat Chandra Boseelder brother of Subhas Chandra Bose.; Mr. Jagjivan Ram; Dr. Rajendra Prasad; Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel; Mr. Asaf Ali; Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru; Mr syed Ali Zahee.
    INDIA 1947 WAS A DIVIDED COUNTRY- RULING colonialist ,used a willing pawn[Jinnah], to form Pakistan, WISHING TO CONTINUE THE 'DIVIDE and RULE' POLICY,[ but failed]
    INDIA BECOMES A FREE COUNTRY 1947 AUGUST


    Nehru presented the National flag to the constituent assembly on July 22, 1947

    NEHRU (l)WITH GOVERNOR GENERAL RAJAGOPALACHARI(c) AND SARDAR PATEL (r)

    HIS PRIORITY WAS FOOD FOR THE STARVING MILLIONS OF INDIA ,AND MILLIONS UPROOTED BY PARTITION OF INDIA
    FAMINE IN DELHI UNDER BRITISH RULE
    UNDER BRITISH RULE- BANGALORE FAMINE
    FAMINE(UNDER BRITISH RULE) IN JABALPORE
    FAMINE(UNDER BRITISH) IN AHMEDABAD -GUJARAT http://pazhayathu.blogspot.com/2010/05/15-famines-under-british-rule-indians.html
    BENGAL FAMINE

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ BOMBAY(MUMBAI)1904
    PEOPLE KILLED DURING PARTITION RIOTS 1947

    British tank in the street after bloody rioting 1947
    REFUGEES 1947
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- MAHATMA GANDHI AT AN OPEN AIR MEETING
    MAHATMA GANDHI ASSASSINATED 1948
    Chamber of Princes [photo 1932 chamber of Indian princess]
    In 1947, India was a ‘feudal’ society with more than 500 Kings and (some) Queens at the time of Independence. (No, the British did not rule over all of modern India). Large parts of India also had to change from a colonial mindset.)

    List of Indian princely states

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Indian_princely_states
    out of The 575-odd Princely States except three, merged without fuss. Junagadh (now in Gujarat), Hyderabad (now in Andhra Pradesh), and Kashmir proved troublesome. The Army had to be employed in Junagadh and Hyderabad to consolidate these states in the Indian Union whereas Kashmir after initial dithering acceded to India voluntarily and by popular consent when
    Pakistani raiders entered the Kashmir Valley in October 1947. In Junagadh it was a simple brigade-level confidence-building measure and the state acceded to the Union. Hyderabad dallied for one year attempting to declare independence outside the Indian Union. In September 1948, a short 100-hour engagement was forced on the Army (at that time heavily engaged in Kashmir). 1 Armoured Division, commanded by Major General IN Chaudhuri one of the few formations available, along with some infantry units attached to it, entered the state and settled matters with minimal force.

    Offering Surrender

    Major General El Edroos (at right) offers his surrender of the Hyderabad State Forces to Major General (later General and Army Chief) Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri at Secunderabad.

    Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Major General Muchu Chaudhury flank the Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Osman Ali Khan after he signed the accession to India in September 1948.
    NOBODY THOUGHT AT THAT TIME INDIA WILL ACHIEVE SO MUCH IN JUST 50 YEARS !
    THE CHANGES LOOK JUST LIKE A MIRACLE FOR THOSE WHO HAVE SEEN IT THEN 1947 AND NOW20011 - [ a miracle ,considering that now Indian companies are employing 60,000 Americans in 40 American states -something -neither thinkable nor dreamable ,by a starving India with a begging bowl in 1947]
    only regret for a person who saw the famines of India 1947 is that he will not be able to see THE GOOD TIMES OF INDIA 2050 A.D.
    INDIA OLD AND NEW

    while India made real progress in science and research, and made its own nuclear facilities and its own rockets ; Pakistan had to beg and borrow or pay for it from china and north Korea . u.s.a.closed its eyes thinking Pakistan is essential for its fights in Afghanistan http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_Secrets
    "Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan: brilliant scientist, trusted colleague, nuclear spy. Khan’s master plan: to steal Europe’s nuclear secrets, build an atomic bomb for Pakistan, and set-up a smuggling network to sell those secrets on to Middle Eastern states from Libya to Iran."
    —Sean Pertwee's opening narration
    Pakistani scientist A.Q. Khan started working for URENCO in The Netherlands in 1972. Spying for the Pakistani security service Khan gained access to top-secret data due to lax security methods. Returning to Pakistani with his family in 1975 it would be years before the Dutch realised what Khan had stolen and why. ========================================================================= Three Swiss engineers — a father and his two sons — have been charged with breaking arms export laws by aiding a Pakistani-led nuclear smuggling ring that supplied Libya's atomic weapons program, prosecutors said Tuesday.By FRANK JORDANS Associated Press
    GENEVA December 13, 2011 (AP)
    Urs Tinner, 46, his brother Marco, 43, and their father Friedrich, 74, are accused of providing technology and know-how to the nuclear smuggling network of Abdul Qadeer Khan, the architect of Pakistan's nuclear weapons program, the federal prosecutors office in Bern said in a statement.
    The A.Q. Khan smuggling ring sold key equipment such as centrifuges for uranium enrichment to various countries until its operations were disrupted in 2003.
    Prosecutors said the Tinners have agreed to ask for a shortened legal procedure, under which defendants admit the basic charges against them but face no more than five years in prison.
    If judges at the Federal Criminal Tribunal agree, politically sensitive aspects of the investigation likely won't be publicly aired as further evidence gathering — and therefore cross-examination — would be excluded in court.
    An unidentified fourth defendant who prosecutors said played a subordinate role will be charged in a separate legal proceeding with breaking Swiss arms exports laws.
    Prosecutors said in their statement the question of the Tinners' cooperation with the CIA remains unresolved, because the Swiss government has denied a request to open a criminal investigation into the issue.
    Lawyers representing the Tinners didn't immediately respond to emails and telephone calls requesting comment.
    Urs Tinner, who was released on bail in December 2008 after almost five years in investigative detention, claimed in a 2009 interview with Swiss TV station SF1 that he had tipped off U.S. intelligence about a delivery of centrifuge parts meant for Libya's nuclear weapons program. The shipment was seized at the Italian port of Taranto in 2003, forcing Libya to admit and eventually renounce its efforts to acquire nuclear weapons.
    The CIA has declined to comment on the Tinner case. But the agency has said in the past that "the disruption of the A.Q. Khan network was a genuine intelligence success, one in which the CIA played a key role."
    A book by U.S. investigative reporters Douglas Frantz and Catherine Collins backs Urs Tinner's claim that he was recruited by the CIA as early as 2000.
    In 2007, the Swiss government ordered evidence in the case destroyed, citing national security concerns. The decision prompted outrage in Switzerland and accusations that the government had acted under pressure from Washington.
    Prosecutors said they were able to recover copies of some of the files, but others — including all electronic records — have been "definitively lost."
    ========================================================================
    Blinking Text INDIA OF 1500:-
    Persian envoy Abdul Razak visited during Krishnadeva raya regime:-

    Awe-struck by the splendor and prosperity prevailing in the Vijayanagar Empire, Abdur Razaak said,- “The pupil of the eye has never seen a place like it and the ear of intelligence has never been informed that there it IS in the world”. Abdur Razaak was the Persian ambassador who had visited Vijayanagara in 1446.
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    A scene of poverty in the slum area around St Giles's in the City of London1880

    SLUMS OF NEWYORK CITY -19 TH CENTURY



    It costs a Dollar a Month to sleep in these Sheds.
    =LONDON SLUMS -before England became rich 1880

    1849 The irish Famine



    1849 The Irish Famine


    March 8, 1847



    IRELAND

    ----They believe that the Government are determined to systematically put to death one half of the people. With such an opinion daily gaining ground, it is not easy to calculate how long, or why, the Whigs ought to remain in place and power. Under their regime provisions have risen to double -----[DOUBTS ABOUT ENGLISH BY IRISH ]
    same doubts were raised about the English rulers of India during Bengal famine of 1945
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    1500A.D. EUROPEAN COUNTRIES WERE COMPARATIVELY POOR,DIVIDED AND QUARRELING AMONG THEMSELVES ;BUT READY TO MAKE MONEY BY HOOK OR CROOK FROM THE COLONIES. 1600A.D. SAW SPANISH SAILORS LOOTING NEWLY DISCOVERED MEXICO OF ITS WEALTH. THE SAME STORY REPEATED ALL OVER THE WORLD WITH OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES DOING THE SAME On October 12, 1492, -SAW COLUMBUS IN HIS GREED TO FIND A NEW ROUTE TO REACH THE RICHES OF INDIA; INSTEAD - REACHED AMERICA;which was an unknown and undeveloped place ; BY CHANCE; AND IN HIS IGNORANCE CALLed IT INDIA -----(now known as WEST INDIES) AND THE PEOPLE OF THAT PLACE AS INDIANS --(NOW KNOWN AS:-RED INDIANS AND AMERICAN INDIANS;the original inhabitants of the place) 1600'S A.D . AFRICA WAS STILL AN UNEXPLORED AND UNKNOWN PLACE ,SO, CALLED THE DARK CONTINENT 1600'S A.D INDIA AND CHINA WERE VERY RICH AND POWERFUL BUT IT ALL CHANGED WITH EUROPEAN TRADE AND GREED . -NOW THE SAME TWO COUNTRIES ARE GOING BACK TO BE FIRST AND SECOND IN THE WORLD BY 2050 A.D HISTORY REPEATS FOR INDIA

    [Translation OF SARE JAHAN SE ACHA SONG]:-

    Better than the entire world, is our Hindustan, We are its nightingales, and it (is) our garden abode If we are in an alien place, the heart remains in the homeland, Know us to be only there where our heart is. That tallest mountain, that shade-sharer of the sky, It (is) our sentry, it (is) our watchman In its lap frolic those thousands of rivers, Whose vitality makes our garden the envy of Paradise. O the flowing waters of the Ganges, do you remember that day When our caravan first disembarked on your waterfront? Religion does not teach us to bear ill-will among ourselves We are of Hind, our homeland is Hindustan. In a world in which ancient Greece, Egypt, and Rome have all vanished without trace Our own attributes (name and sign) live on today. Such is our existence that it cannot be erased Even though, for centuries, the cycle of time has been our enemy.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Ancient civilisation of Rome ;Greece;and Egypt have vanished long ago
    ANCIENT PERSIAN CIVILISATION WAS DESTROYED BY Arab invasion, of the Sassanid Empire in 644, the fall of Sassanid dynasty in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion inPersia.
    ANCIENT CHINESE AND TIBETAN civilization were destroyed by chairman MAO under cultural- revolution 1966--1976 Countless ancient buildings, artifacts, antiques, books, and paintings were destroyed by Red Guards.

    ONLY ANCIENT INDIAN CIVILISATION CONTINUES
    THOUGH MANY INVADERS FROM OUTSIDE INDIA ,TRIED TO DESTROY IT,MANY TIMES FROM 1100 TO 1800A.D.
    INDIA MUST THANK THE AID GIVERS FROM 1947 ONWARDS
    About 90 percent of all aid received by India has been in the form of loans. Aid disbursements from all providers for FY 1990 were Rs67 billion.
    In August 1958, the World Bank organized the Aid-to-India Consortium, consisting of the World Bank Group and thirteen countries: Austria, Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany (at that time, West Germany), France, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United States. The consortium was formed to coordinate aid and establish priorities among India's major sources of foreign assistance and to simplify India's requests for aid based on its plans for development. Consortium aid was bilateral government-to-government aid from the thirteen consortium countries, and almost all of the aid, including that from the World Bank Group, was for specific projects judged to be valuable contributions to India's development. Of the Rs630 billion in aid authorized by all aid donors between FY 1974 and FY 1989, more than 60 percent was provided by the consortium.
    Collectively, the Western nations have donated a substantial amount of aid to India. In 1980 this aid totaled nearly US$1.5 billion and reached US$2.5 billion in 1990. In 1992 Western aid reached a new height: US$3.9 billion, which represented 49.8 percent of all Western multilateral and bilateral aid given to South Asian nations that year. The largest bilateral donor is Japan. Between 1984 and 1993, Japan's official development assistance grants to India totaled US$337 million. Much greater than the outright grants has been Japan's large-scale loan program, which supports economic infrastructure development (power plants and delivery systems, and road improvement) and environmental protection. Between 1984 and 1993, Japanese loans to India totaled nearly US$2.4 billion. A ¥125 billion (US$1.2 billion) loan financing major projects was granted in December 1994, bringing Japanese loans to India since 1957 to a total of ¥1.6 trillion
    United States assistance was significant in the late 1950s and 1960s but, because of strained India-United States relations, fell off sharply in the 1970s . The United States accounted for 8.6 percent of all of the aid India received from independence through FY 1988, but for only 0.7 percent in FY 1989 and 0.6 percent in FY 1990. United States aid to India remained relatively insignifican
    In FY 1993, actual United States obligations through the United States Agency for International Development totaled almost US$161 million. The bulk of this aid was provided as United States Public Law 480 food aid grants with lesser amounts for development assistance (including energy and the environment, population control, child survival, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention, and economic growth) and housing guaranty loans. Germany and Britain also have substantial aid-to-India programs
    Among countries not in the World Bank consortium, the Soviet Union was the most important contributor, providing more than 16 percent of all aid between 1947 and FY 1988. Since 1991, however, Russia has provided little aid.
    ALSO THANKS INDIANS EMPLOYED OUTSIDE INDIA FOR MASSIVE REPATRIATION OF FUNDS TO INDIA ;LEADING TO PROGRESS
    The buoyancy in remittances has been instrumental in
    substantially reducing the current account deficit and building
    up the stock of external reserves
    Although remittances have increased in tandem with the
    increase in remittances of other developing and emerging
    countries, the increase has been somewhat sharper in India. As
    per the latest World Bank study on ‘Migration and Remittances’,
    India, retains its position as the top recipient of migrant
    remittances among developing countries followed by China and
    Mexico
    Totaled to about USD18 billion in 2003, making India one of the
    largest recipient of remittances in the world. In terms of the
    percentage of GDP, remittances equaled about 3 percent in
    2003 with the sharpest increase in transfers during the period
    1991-199
    Such a steady trend has followed in the recent years as well
    with private transfer receipts, comprising mainly remittances
    from Indians working overseas, increasing up to USD 46.4
    billion during 2008-09 from USD 21.1 billion in the year 2004-
    05. In other words, the private transfers have been stable
    sources of funds over the past decade
    Last year,Indians sent home $100bn Anahita Mukherji & Ashley DMello TNN Mumbai: Ever wondered just how much do the 27 million desis scattered across 190 countries in the world contribute to the Indian economy According to World Bank figures,$55 billion poured in from overseas Indians in 2010,a dramatic increase of over 150% that the country had received in 2003 when nearly $21 billion was remitted. The $55 billion remittance,along with other forms of investments,worked out to around $100 billion coming into the Indian economy. In 2010,India received the highest remittance for any country in the world, Dr Alwyn Didar Singh,secretary,ministry of overseas affairs,said during a discussion on Indian diaspora,organized by global think-tank Gateway House on Thursday.According to the World Bank,India is followed by China ($51 billion),Mexico ($22.6 billion),the Philippines ($21.3 billion) and France ($15.9 billion). Though there was a slight dip in remittance from 2008 to 2009,the figure bounced back in 2010 to a level that was higher than that in 2008.Kerala and Punjab are among states that receive the highest remittances from overseas residents. Didar Singh believes that the big increase in remittances has much to do with the great degree of faith that people have in the Indian banking system,coupled with a lack of trust in American banks. Remittances may be in many forms,such as domestic consumption,property,health and education.This is real money that is very much part of the local economy,not money that is simply parked in a bank, he said.
    THANKS TO AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND FOR MASSIVE AID IN MILK SCHEMES AND DEVELOPMENT

    THANKS TO NORWAY FOR HELP IN FISHING PROJECTS IN KERALA AND OTHER COASTAL AREAS

    Sweden has a long history of development cooperation with India, which begun in 1953. In the mid mid-1960s, when Sida was established, India was one of the main recipients of Swedish assistance. Since the late 1990-ies the Swedish support has been channelled through multilateral institutions such as the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Bank and through Indian non-governmental organisations.From
    f 2005 there has been a shift towards technical cooperation THURSDAY, AUGUST 4, 2011 It is India’s turn to hand out monetary aid to Europe,--India

    to set up central foreign aid agency

    Financial Express
    In a role reversal that will tickle most of India’s policymakers of the 1990s, it’s India’s turn to hand out monetary aid to Europe, a far cry from 20 years ago when India had to approach the IMF, begging bowl in hand. The government on Tuesday sought parliamentary approval to provide R9,003 crore (over $2 billion) as aid to debt-stricken Europe. On the face of it, this paints a great picture for India, which has gone from strength to strength in the economic sphere, while the dominant European economies have faltered and stumbled. Basically, from the days of seeking aid, we have graduated to giving aid to those whom we were earlier petitioning. But it is also heartening to see that this gesture (at only $2 billion, that’s all it is) hasn’t been accompanied by self-righteous chest-thumping, as if we were doing Europe a favour. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    India to topple Japan as world's 3rd

    largest economy

    Rishi Shah, ET Bureau Sep 20, 2011,
    NEW DELHI: India might become the world's third largest economy in 2011 by overtaking Japan in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) measured according to the domestic purchasing power of the rupee, otherwise called purchasing power parity.
    India is now the fourth-largest economy behind the US, China and Japan. Numbers from 2010 show that the Japanese economy was worth $4.31 trillion, with India snapping at its heels at $4.06 trillion. But after March's devastating tsunami and earthquakes, Japan's economy is widely expected to contract while India's economy will grow between 7% and 8% this fiscal. "India should overtake Japan in 2011 to become the third-largest economy in the world at purchasing power parity," said Sunil Sinha, head of research and senior economist at Crisil.
    IMF forecasts show India and Japan neck-to-neck in 2011, but the disaster in Japan has brought the event forward. "Were it not for the earthquake and tsunami, India would have overtaken Japan in around 2013-14," said Sinha.
    The purchasing power parity (PPP) method measures the size of an economy by levelling price differences between countries that occur in the process of conversion to a single currency. /photo.cms?msid=10046981
    Under this method, a dollar should be able to buy the same amount of goods anywhere in the world and exchange rates should adjust accordingly.
    The Economist's Big Mac Index, which takes the price of a Big Mac burger across 120 countries to calculate the 'real' price of its currency, is a crude way to measure PPP. India was included in the index recently. It showed that the Indian rupee was undervalued by 53% against the US dollar in August.
    Earlier, a report by consultant PwC suggested that the Indian economy would surpass the Japanese economy in 2012. The IMF expects the Japanese economy to contract 0.7% this year while India is expected to grow 8.2%. A bigger economy could also give the government additional clout and bargaining power overseas.
    "A bigger economy would also mean more clout in international forums," said Madan Sabnavis, chief economist at ratings firm Care.
    India, once a recipient nation for foreign aid, could now come together with Brazil, Russia and China to form a fund to stabilise tottering economies in the Eurozone.
    Globally, companies have their eyes set on India as a rapidly growing nation that is full of opportunities. The sheer scale of development needed could drive growth for many years. "India has the advantage of size. The scope of growth and excess capacity present in terms of resources would drive growth in the future," said Sabnavis.
    Economists say that while the change in the rank of a country does not mean much, it points to broad trends in the growth trajectories of nations.
    "It's a long process of development, but this shows that the markets are expanding and there is robust demand within the economy," said Siddhartha Sanyal, chief economist, Barclays Capital.
    According to the University of Pennsylvania PPP world tables, India has already moved ahead of Japan in 2010. The size of the Indian economy is expected to reach almost $5 trillion by the end of 2011.---------------------------------------------------------------

    Here’s a graphic put together illustrating the economic changes we’ll see in the coming years:

    ...
    World's largest economies in 2050


    International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Economic Outlook (WEO) Database, April 2011 Edition, Gross Domestic Product, current prices, U.S. dollars.The largest economies in the world in 2050

    The largest economies in the world in 2050, measured in GDP nominal (billions of USD), according to Goldman Sachs.
    HSBC: China to become world's largest economy by 2050 17:02, March 21, 2011

    World's largest economies by 2050
    GoldMan Sachs Economic forecast for 2050
    Top 1 - 10
    1 China $70,710,000
    2 United States $38,514,000
    3 India $37,668,000
    4 Brazil $11,366,000
    5 Mexico $9,340,000
    6 Russia $8,580,000
    7 Indonesia $7,010,000
    8 Japan $6,677,000
    9 United Kingdom $5,133,000
    10 Germany $5,024,000
    Top 11 - 20
    11 Nigeria $4,640,000
    12 France $4,592,000
    13 South Korea $4,083,000
    14 Turkey $3,943,000
    15 Vietnam $3,607,000
    16 Canada $3,149,000
    17 Philippines $3,010,000
    18 Italy $2,950,000
    19 Iran $2,663,000
    20 Egypt $2,602,000
    International Futures[2100 AD] (IFs) V 5.34 -Lead Author: Prof. B. Hughes, Univ. of Denverhttp://www.ifs.du.edu
    ON

    International Futures[2100 AD] (IFs) V 5.34 -Lead Author: Prof. B. Hughes, Univ. of Denverhttp://www.ifs.du.edu

    [Report of the 'National intelligence council']

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------...........................

    i i am adding 2 books written by Dadabhai NAWROJI AND KM MUNSHI ON
    BRITISH LOOTINGG OF INDIA AND HOW INDIA BECAME POOR

    1:-Poverty and un-British rule in India


    21946The Ruin That Britain WroughtMunshi, K M



    ..
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Dadabhai NAVROJI
    Dadabhai Naoroji (4 September 1825 – 30 June 1917) (Hindi: दादाभाई नौरोजी), known as
    Grand Old Man of India,

    was a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader, and an early Indianpolitical leader. His book Poverty and Un-British Rule in India brought attention to the draining of India's wealth into Britain. He was a Member of Parliament (MP) in the British House of Commons between 1892 and 1895,
    and the first Asian to be a British MP.
    He is also credited with the
    founding of the Indian National Congress, along with A.O. Hume and Dinshaw Edulji Wacha.
    Spe aking at the N e w i n g t o n R e f o rm C l u b , W a l w o r t h , he s a id: One of the arguments p ut f o rwa rd in defence of the system was that the B r i t i sh prevented the different peoples of India f r om plunde r ing each other. T h at was o n ly a h a lf t r u t h; the w h o le t r u th was that they prevented the different peoples f r om plunde ri ng each other in order that they themselves m i g ht plunder a l l. T h en they were t o ld that the B r i t i sh had int roduc ed security of prope r ty, b ut o n ly in order that they m i g ht carry it away w i t h perfect security. As to the security of l i f e, it was said that the o ld mental despots used to k i ll thousands and thousands, and harass the people. If that was so, the B r i t i sh Gove rnment, w i t h great ingenui ty and scientific precision, was k i l l i ng mi l l ions by famines and plagues, and starving scores of mi l l i o n s. . . . T he Anglo-Indians, or the B r i t i s h, were l i ke clever surgeons w h o, w i t h the sharpest scalpels, cut to the v e ry heart, and dr ew every d r op of b l o od w i t h o ut leaving a scar. da t ed A p r i l 2 1 , 1905,
    (despatch M a r ch 25, 1890):— " M i l l i o ns of money have been spent on increasing the a rmy in Indi a, on armaments, and on fortifications to p r o v i de f or the security of Indi a, n ot against domestic enemies or to pr event the invasions of the w a r l i ke peoples of adjoining countries, b ut to ma i n t a in the supremacy of B r i t i sh p o w er in the East." He r e, t h e n, is a strange and sad contrast. T he U n i t e d K i n g d om and I n d ia are g o v e r n ed by the same G o v e r n m e n t, w i t h the result of b r i n g i ng to the U n i t e d K i n g d om an a d d i t i on to its w e a l t h, as p r o f i ts of its e x p o r t s, in t en years, of £1,267,441,206, and, on the o t h er h a n d, causing to I n d ia in the same t en years a d e p r i v a t i on and loss of £ 3 4 3 , 6 5 9 , 9 2 0. N o t o n ly thi s. T he loss to I n d ia mu st be measured by h ow m u ch m o re I n d ia w o u l d have benefited, had this e n o rmo us d r a in of the t en years and a ll d r a in of pr evious years been at Indi a 's o w n disposal and f r u c t i f i ed in the Indi ans' pockets
    Open Library

    Poverty and un-British rule in India.

    As late as the 1750s, India had an export surplus; its favourable trade balance was matched by bullion import, as the world had nothing else to offer India in return for its fine textiles. British colonialism reversed this process, first by monopolising trade and then — in the early 19th century — by demolishing Indian industry. During the period when British trade established supremacy, goods were exported by India but the bullion never reached the country. British merchants purchased goods in rupee receipts in India, and exchanged them abroad for bullion. Much before Dadabhai Naoroji and the so-called ‘modern nationalist’ school came up with a figure for India’s drain of wealth chroniclers had put it at more than 100,000 million pound sterling per annum.

    ConvertTo


    1 GBPINR=76.47681 GBP = 76.4768 INR as of 30/09/2011 12:08
    [GBP IN 1900 A.D. 1 POUND = ABOUT 10 RUPEES]
    Dadabhai NAVROJIproved that the average annual income of an Indian was barely Rs 20. Examining the import and export figures for 37 years, he proved that India's exports exceeded its imports by Rs 50 crores (approximately $135 million) annually.
    In fact, bullion owed to India helped finance England’s Industrial Revolution. Then, in order to flood Indian markets with European goods, India was de-industrialised. From being a supplier of luxury goods, it was turned into an exporter of raw material. Between 1820 and 1840, de-industrialisation closed down more than 12,000 markets, controlled and operated by peasants and small entrepreneurs in northern India
    The ideological moorings of imperialism have been many. From liberaltradition of orientalism to that of not so good utilitarianism. Allthese affected the political as well as the economic fabric. Theimperial powers started as trading organisations and later developedinto full fledged political powers. This transformation was to a largeextent based on the control over resources. In India's context, this hadmeant things like:# Use of territorial revenue by British trading company as 'investment',whereby during the eighteenth century, it would use the territorialrevenue of Bengal to buy goods from Bengal and export that to Europe,and would show that this money was their 'investment' in India!#Trade imbalance that had gradually transformed India from an exportingcountry in goods like Cotton to that of an importing country of cotton.#Transfer of wealth in form of invisibles eg. transfer of profit,pensions, cost of maintenance of Office of Secy etc all these comingfrom Indian revenue.
    Destruction of handicraft industries (during the later eighteenthcentury), when the industrial revolution had only just started~ andperhaps the societies were poised in a balanced way. This is alsorelated to an important phenomena of "proto-industrialisation" and"deindustrialisation".
    # Destruction of technological industries like shipping in the early nineteenth century. Here it is interesting to note that shipping of India was not outdone by any Western technology, but by the non-technological political policies made in Britain. Scholars like Gunder Frank also puts the western superiority in areas like shipping only by 1840s. All these meant technological impoverishment in the long run
    # The nature of this drain underwent a shift when the age of finance capitalism emerged. The most glaring example is that of railways. In the case, of railways the whole cost was put on India as guaranteed project. This meant that whether the project earned money or losses, it would be paid a guaranteed system by the Govt that protected the private investment. Consequently, this meant that the money for investment in projects like railways was basically extracted from India. If the investment in railways is neglected, then there was very little foreign investment during the whole period of imperialism
    # Moreover, all this was not just a matter of drain, but also worked to serve the imperial political interests. Railways & Telegraph was used for suppression of revolts. Railways particularly was useful both for things like troop movement as well as penetration into areas and provinces of princely rulers, who were theoretically free. (at the time of independence, there were some 562 such independent states, that became part of the successor states) It was also useful for penetration of foreign goods, particularly textile into the hinterlands and also for transfer of raw materials from hinterland to the seaports for export to Britain.
    # The drain also happened in terms of expenses on military. The costs of military expedition in far off lands- Middle East, Africa (like the Abyssinian & Sudan expeditons), Europe etc, which were basically British imperial wars, and had no relation to India were charged on Indian exchequer.
    These areas were identified by the early Indian nationalists and much literature was written on it. It in some ways became an ideological issue, that received support from all spectrum of politics in India. This "Drain of Wealth Theory" gave a firm foundation to the anti-imperial struggle. In some ways, it meant that the struggle was not just political or even an issue of power, but of safeguarding of the basic interests of the country from an exploitative imperial power.
    The people, among others, who actually theorised this were- Dada Bhai
    Naoroji in his various monographs and particularly in "Poverty and Unbritish Rule in India", and RC Dutt in his "The Economic History of India", in two vol. Such a thing also received support of some Britishers like Digby.
    In 1906, at the age of 80, Dadabhai was invited for a third time to be president of the Indian National Congress in Calcutta, 
    and he helped to patch up a conflict between the moderates and the extremists.
     In his keynote speech he demanded "Swaraj" or Self-Rule from the British,
     which delighted the Congress attendees and the Indian public. 
    He said "Be united, persevere, and achieve self-Government, so that the millions now perishing
     by poverty, famine, and plague may be saved, and India may once more occupy her proud 
    position of yore among the greatest and civilized nations of the world"
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    THE STORY BEHIND FAMINES IN INDIA DURING BRITISH RULE
    INDIA IS BELIEVED TO BE THE OLDEST CENTER OF INDIGO DYEING IN THE OLD WORLD.
    IT WAS A PRIMARY SUPPLIER OF INDIGO DYE, DERIVED FROM THE PLANTINDIGOFERA TINCTORIA, TO EUROPE AS EARLY AS THE GRECO-ROMAN ERA. THE ROMANS USED THE TERM INDICUM, WHICH PASSED INTO ITALIAN DIALECT AND EVENTUALLY INTO ENGLISH AS THE WORDINDIGO
    .INDIGO REMAINED A RARE COMMODITY IN EUROPE THROUGHOUT THE MIDDLE AGES.
    FORCEFUL CULTIVATION OF INDIGO IN INDIA.
    , DURING BRITISH RULE 7000 SQUARE KILOMETERS WERE DEDICATED TO THE CULTIVATION OF INDICAN-PRODUCING PLANTS, MAINLY IN INDIA . BY COMPARISON, THE COUNTRY OF LUXEMBOURG CONSISTS OF 2,586 SQUARE KILOMETERS
    THE INDIGO PLANTERS[BRITISH] LEFT NO STONES UNTURNED TO MAKE MONEY. THEY MERCILESSLY PURSUED THE PEASANTS TO PLANT INDIGO INSTEAD OF FOOD CROPS.
    THEY PROVIDED LOANS, CALLED DADON AT A VERY HIGH INTEREST. ONCE A FARMER TOOK SUCH LOANS HE REMAINED IN DEBT FOR WHOLE OF HIS LIFE BEFORE PASSING IT TO HIS SUCCESSORS. 
    THE PRICE PAID BY THE PLANTERS WAS MEAGRE,ONLY 2.5% OF THE MARKET PRICE.
    
    SO THE FARMERS COULD MAKE NO PROFIT BY GROWING INDIGO. THE FARMERS WERE TOTALLY UNPROTECTED FROM THE BRUTAL INDIGO PLANTERS, WHO RESORTED TO MORTGAGE OR DESTRUCTION OF THEIR PROPERTY IF THEY WERE UNWILLING TO OBEY THEM. 
    
    
    GOVERNMENT RULES FAVOURED THE PLANTERS[BRITISH]. BY AN ACT IN 1833, THE PLANTERS WERE GRANTED A FREE HAND IN OPPRESSION.
    
     EVEN THE ZAMINDARS, MONEY LENDERS AND OTHER INFLUENTIAL PERSONS SIDED WITH THE PLANTERS. OUT OF THE SEVERE OPPRESSION UNLEASHED ON THEM THE FARMERS RESORTED TO REVOLT.
     WHEN FARMERS ROSE AGAINST THE FORCIBLE CULTIVATION OF THE UN-REMUNERATIVE INDIGO CROP
    
    THE REVOLT WAS RUTHLESSLY SUPPRESSED. LARGE FORCES OF POLICE AND MILITARY BACKED BY THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT AND THE ZAMINDARS
    THE REVOLT HAD A STRONG EFFECT ON THE GOVERNMENT, WHICH IMMEDIATELY APPOINT THE "INDIGO COMMISSION" IN 1860. IN THE COMMISSION REPORT, E. W. L. TOWER NOTED THAT "NOT A CHEST OF INDIGO REACHED ENGLAND WITHOUT BEING STAINED WITH HUMAN BLOOD
    FORCIBLE -INDIGO MANUFACTURE IN INDIA UNDER BRITISH
    THE BRITISH SLAVE MASTER CAN BE SEEN IN LOWER RIGHT PICTURE WITH A WHIP IN HAND

    BRITISH FORCIBLY CONVERTED AGRICULTURE LAND TO INDIGO CULTIVATION CAUSING FAMINE


    [2]

    The Terrible Indian Famine of 1876-79

    Figure 2 Food Exports during the years 1872-1879 (source: Famines in Bengal 1770-1943,K C Ghosh,from pages 28-29)

    [3]

    STORY BEHIND BENGAL FAMINE 1943



    British prime minister Winston Churchill
    deliberately let millions of Indians starve to death, the author of a new book has claimed, alleging he was motivated in part by racial hatred.
    As many as three million people died in the Bengal famine of 1943 after Japan captured neighbouring Burma -- a major source of rice imports -- and British colonial rulers in India stockpiled food for soldiers and war workers.
    Panic-buying of rice sent prices soaring, and distribution channels were wrecked when officials confiscated or destroyed most boats and bullock carts in Bengal to stop them falling into enemy hands if Japan invaded.
    Rice suddenly became scarce in markets and, as worsening hunger spread through villages, Churchill repeatedly refused pleas for emergency food shipments.
    Emaciated masses drifted into Kolkata, where eye-witnesses described men fighting over foul scraps and skeletal mothers dying in the streets as British and middle-class Indians ate large meals in their clubs or at home.
    The "man-made" famine has long been one of the darkest chapters of the British Raj, but now Madhusree Mukerjee says she has uncovered evidence that Churchill was directly responsible for the appalling suffering.
    Her book, "Churchill's Secret War", quotes previously unused papers that disprove his claim that no ships could be spared from the war and that show him brushing aside increasingly desperate requests from British officials in India.
    Analysis of World War II cabinet meetings, forgotten ministry records and personal archives show that full grain ships from Australia were passing India on their way to the Mediterranean region, where huge stockpiles were building up.
    "It wasn't a question of Churchill being inept: sending relief to Bengal was raised repeatedly and he and his close associates thwarted every effort," Mukerjee told AFP in a telephone interview.
    "The United States and Australia offered to send help but couldn't because the war cabinet was not willing to release ships. And when the US offered to send grain on its own ships, that offer was not followed up by the British."
    Churchill's record as a war leader against Nazi Germany has secured his place in history, but hisattitude towards Indians attracts less admiration.
    "He said awful things about Indians. He told his secretary he wished they could be bombed," Mukerjee said. "He was furious with Indians because he could see America would not let British rule in India continue."






    Eminent British historian Max Hastings has described it as "significant -- and to British readers -- distressing."


     







    "The rapidly expanding India-US trade and economic engagement provides a key underpinning to the strategic partnership between our two countries," said Nirupama Rao, India's ambassador to the US. "Our aim, through the India Business Forum, is to highlight the range and depth of Indian investments in the United States and also to try and dispel some of the misconceptions associated with Indian companies," said Sandhya Satwadi, director and head, CII. Key findings: * 70 per cent of surveyed companies have increased the number of employees since 2005, despite the US economic downturn; * More than 34 per cent of the surveyed companies have established manufacturing facilities in the US, investing more than $820 million in those facilities; * Since 2005, the surveyed companies have collectively conducted 72 mergers and acquisitions in the US, saving, creating and sustaining thousands of jobs; * Their collective revenues for 2010-2011 were more than $23 billion * Projected research and development investments of the surveyed companies are estimated to be over $190 million in 2012 alone; and * Nearly 65 per cent of companies surveyed engage in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives, * These include programmes that support 27 universities, community colleges and high schools in developing curriculum, establishing training programmes and encouraging Science-Technology-Engineering-Mathematics (STEM) education. CII's survey respondents, consisting of 36 Indian companies, represent sectors including education, financial services, healthcare pharmaceuticals and life sciences, information technology, manufacturing, media and telecommunications.
    ==============================================================================================================
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    India Economy 2012

    SOURCE: 2012 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES
    India is developing into an open-market economy, yet traces of its past autarkic policies remain. Economic liberalization, including industrial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and reduced controls on foreign trade and investment, began in the early 1990s and has served to accelerate the country's growth, which has averaged more than 7% per year since 1997. India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Slightly more than half of the work force is in agriculture, but services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for more than half of India's output, with only one-third of its labor force. India has capitalized on its large educated English-speaking population to become a major exporter of information technology services and software workers. In 2010, the Indian economy rebounded robustly from the global financial crisis - in large part because of strong domestic demand - and growth exceeded 8% year-on-year in real terms. However, India's economic growth in 2011 slowed because of persistently high inflation and interest rates and little progress on economic reforms. High international crude prices have exacerbated the government's fuel subsidy expenditures contributing to a higher fiscal deficit, and a worsening current account deficit. Little economic reform took place in 2011 largely due to courruption scandals that have slowed legislative work. India's medium-term growth outlook is positive due to a young population and corresponding low dependency ratio, healthy savings and investment rates, and increasing integration into the global economy. India has many long-term challenges that it has not yet fully addressed, including widespread poverty, inadequate physical and social infrastructure, limited non-agricultural employment opportunities, insufficient access to quality basic and higher education, and accommodating rural-to-urban migration. GDP (purchasing power parity): $4.463 trillion (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 4
    $4.139 trillion (2010 est.)
    $3.76 trillion (2009 est.) note: data are in 2011 US dollars [see also: GDP country ranks ] GDP (official exchange rate): $1.843 trillion (2011 est.) [see also: GDP (official exchange rate) country ranks ] GDP - real growth rate: 7.8% (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 12
    10.1% (2010 est.)
    6.8% (2009 est.) [see also: GDP - real growth rate country ranks ] GDP - per capita: $3,700 (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 160
    $3,500 (2010 est.)
    $3,200 (2009 est.) note: data are in 2011 US dollars [see also: GDP - per capita country ranks ] GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 18.1% [see also: GDP - composition by sector - agriculture country ranks ] industry: 26.3% [see also: GDP - composition by sector - industry country ranks ] services: 55.6% (2011 est.) [see also: GDP - composition by sector - services country ranks ] Labor force: 487.6 million (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 2 [see also: Labor force country ranks ] Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 52% [see also: Labor force - by occupation - agriculture country ranks ] industry: 14% [see also: Labor force - by occupation - industry country ranks ] services: 34% (2009 est.) [see also: Labor force - by occupation - services country ranks ] Unemployment rate: 9.8% (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 109
    10% (2010 est.) [see also: Unemployment rate country ranks ] Population below poverty line: 25% (2007 est.) [see also: Population below poverty line country ranks ] Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.6% [see also: Household income or consumption by percentage share - lowest 10% country ranks ] highest 10%: 31.1% (2005) [see also: Household income or consumption by percentage share - highest 10% country ranks ] Distribution of family income - Gini index: 36.8 (2004) country comparison to the world: 83
    37.8 (1997) [see also: Distribution of family income - Gini index country ranks ] Investment (gross fixed): 30.7% of GDP (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 28 [see also: Investment (gross fixed) country ranks ] Budget: revenues: $218.7 billion [see also: Budget revenues country ranks ] expenditures: $311.2 billion (2011 est.) [see also: Budget expenditures country ranks ] Taxes and other revenues: 11.9% of GDP (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 199 [see also: Taxes and other revenues country ranks ] Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -5% of GDP (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 148 [see also: Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) country ranks ] Public debt: 51.6% of GDP (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 50
    50.6% of GDP (2010 est.) note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by Government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; Debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions [see also: Public debt country ranks ] Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.8% (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 148
    12% (2010 est.) [see also: Inflation rate (consumer prices) country ranks ] Central bank discount rate: 5.5% (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 66
    6% (31 December 2009 est.) [see also: Central bank discount rate country ranks ] Commercial bank prime lending rate: 11.8% (31 December 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 98
    10.167% (31 December 2010 est.) [see also: Commercial bank prime lending rate country ranks ] Stock of narrow money: $380.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 14
    $340.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.) [see also: Stock of narrow money country ranks ] Stock of broad money: $1.538 trillion (31 December 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 11
    $1.323 trillion (31 December 2010 est.) [see also: Stock of broad money country ranks ] Stock of domestic credit: $1.452 trillion (31 December 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 14
    $1.25 trillion (31 December 2010 est.) [see also: Stock of domestic credit country ranks ] Market value of publicly traded shares: $1.616 trillion (31 December 2010) country comparison to the world: 12
    $1.179 trillion (31 December 2009)
    $645.5 billion (31 December 2008) [see also: Market value of publicly traded shares country ranks ] Agriculture - products: rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, lentils, onions, potatoes; dairy products, sheep, goats, poultry; fish Industries: textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals Industrial production growth rate: 6.7% (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 41 [see also: Industrial production growth rate country ranks ] Electricity - production: 835.3 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 6 [see also: Electricity - production country ranks ] Electricity - consumption: 600.6 billion kWh (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 6 [see also: Electricity - consumption country ranks ] Electricity - exports: 810 million kWh (2009 est.) [see also: Electricity - exports country ranks ] Electricity - imports: 5.27 billion kWh (2009 est.) [see also: Electricity - imports country ranks ] Oil - production: 954,000 bbl/day (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 24 [see also: Oil - production country ranks ] Oil - consumption: 3.182 million bbl/day (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 5 [see also: Oil - consumption country ranks ] Oil - exports: 825,600 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 23 [see also: Oil - exports country ranks ] Oil - imports: 3.06 million bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 6 [see also: Oil - imports country ranks ] Natural gas - production: 52.8 billion cu m (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 18 [see also: Natural gas - production country ranks ] Natural gas - consumption: 64.95 billion cu m (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 12 [see also: Natural gas - consumption country ranks ] Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 116 [see also: Natural gas - exports country ranks ] Natural gas - imports: 12.15 billion cu m (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 21 [see also: Natural gas - imports country ranks ] Natural gas - proved reserves: 1.074 trillion cu m (1 January 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 25 [see also: Natural gas - proved reserves country ranks ] Current account balance: -$62.96 billion (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 192
    -$51.72 billion (2010 est.) [see also: Current account balance country ranks ] Exports: $298.2 billion (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 21
    $225.6 billion (2010 est.) [see also: Exports country ranks ] Exports - commodities: petroleum products, precious stones, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, vehicles, apparel Exports - partners: US 12.6%, UAE 12.2%, China 8.1%, Hong Kong 4.1% (2010) Imports: $451 billion (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 13
    $357.7 billion (2010 est.) [see also: Imports country ranks ] Imports - commodities: crude oil, precious stones, machinery, fertilizer, iron and steel, chemicals Imports - partners: China 12.4%, UAE 6.5%, Saudi Arabia 5.8%, US 5.7%, Australia 4.5% (2010) Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $345.8 billion (31 December 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 7
    $287.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.) [see also: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold country ranks ] Debt - external: $267.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 30
    $251.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.) [see also: Debt - external country ranks ] Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $225 billion (31 December 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 21
    $188.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.) [see also: Stock of direct foreign investment - at home country ranks ] Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $114.2 billion (31 December 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 25
    $91.86 billion (31 December 2010 est.) [see also: Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad country ranks ] Exchange rates: Indian rupees (INR) per US dollar -
    44.64 (2011 est.)
    45.726 (2010 est.)
    48.405 (2009)
    43.319 (2008)
    41.487 (2007)
    ==============================================================

    World’s Top Ten Largest Economies 2011


    Countries (Right=>)
    Particulars (Bottom)
    United States
    China
    Japan
    India
    Germany
    Russia
    Brazil
    U.K.
    France
    Italy
    Rank
    First
    Second
    Third
    Fourth
    Fifth
    Sixth
    Seventh
    Eighth
    Ninth
    Tenth
    GDP –Purchasing Power Parity (2010)
    $14.66 trillion
    $10.09 trillion
    $4.31 trillion
    $4.06 trillion
    $2.94 trillion
    $2.23 trillion
    $2.172 trillion
    $2.171 trillion
    $2.145 trillion
    $1.774 trillion
    Contribution of Industrial Sector in GDP
    22.1%
    46.9%
    24.9%
    26.3%
    27.8%
    36.8%
    26.8 %
    21.8%
    18.5%
    25.3%
    Contribution of Agricultural Sector in GDP
    1.1%
    10.2%
    1.4%
    18.5%
    0.9%
    4%
    5.8%
    0.7%
    2%
    1.9%
    Contribution of Services Sector in GDP (2010)
    76.8%
    43%
    73.8%
    55.2%
    71.3%
    59.1%
    67.4 %
    77.5%
    79.5%
    72.8%
    Population (2011)
    312,222,000
    1,339,724,852
    127,960,000
    1,210,193,422
    81,799,600
    142,905,208
    192,336,496
    62,262,000
    65,821,885
    60,681,514
    Unemployement Rate (2010)
    9.6%
    4.3%
    5%
    10.8%
    7.1%
    7.6%
    6.7%
    7.8%
    9.3 %
    8.4 %

    India announces $ 10 billion for debt-wracked eurozone
    IANS Los Cabos, June 19, 2012
    First Published: 08:18 IST(19/6/2012) Last Updated: 08:45 IST(19/6/2012)

    (L-R) Brazilian President Dilma Roussef, Russian President Vladimir Putin,Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, Chinese President Hu Jintao and South African President Jacob Zuma pose for group photo in Los Cabos, Mexico. AFP Photo/Ria-Novosti Pool/Alexei nikolsky
    India has pledged $10 billion to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to help Eurozone countries out of the current crisis and prevent adverse fallout on emerging economies. "The International Monetary Fund has a critical, supportive role to play in stabilizing the Eurozone. All members must help the fund to play this role," the prime minister told the G20 Summit in Los Cabos.
    "I am happy to announce India has decided to contribute $10 billion to IMF's additional firewall of $430 billion," he said, also appealing to countries with surpluses such as China to make similar contributions.
    The prime minister began by congratulating the new government in Greece that is about to take office, as it has given hope that the debt-laden country will stay in the Eurozone and take up critical reforms.
    "We wish them well and are encouraged by the early statements of intent."
    He, nevertheless, said the crisis in Eurozone remained worrying, as it was pulling down even emerging economies such as India and China, which were earlier on a high growth path.
    "This calls for policy action on several fronts. Of greatest concern at present is the uncertainty affecting the Eurozone. The sovereign debt crisis and the banking crisis now on the horizon have grave implications for the health of the entire global economy."
    The prime minister again laid emphasis on infrastructure investment as he had in earlier G20 Summits, saying less developed and emerging economies were also facing serious problems because of the global crisis.
    "Infrastructure investment in developing countries assumes special importance in this context. It lays the foundation for rapid growth in the longer term, while providing an immediate stimulus for their economies and also for the global economy, by providing a robust source of demand."
    But more infrastructure investment in developing world is only possible if they get access to long-term capital, he said, adding: "Multilateral development banks can play a major role in this context."
    Efforts were underway in India to spruce up infrastructure with massive investment and ambitious targets, he said.
    The prime minister said while the performance of the Indian economy, now growing at 6.9% as against 8.4% in 2010-11, may look good to the world outside, it was not enough and that citizens expected more.
    "Yet the fundamentals of the Indian economy remain strong and we are confident of bringing back the rhythm of high growth of 8-9% per annum."
    NEHRU WONT HAVE BELIEVED IN 1960; INDIA AIDING EUROPE IN 2012 NOR I BELIEVED INDIA WILL HAVE ROCKETS/NUCLEAR BOMBS IN 1950 WHEN WE WERE IMPORTING SAFETY PINS/PENCILS/CYCLES/CARS
    ‘Nehru: India marching to prosperity; Big projects a symbol of our resolve,' (see story below)
    Budhni inaugurating the power station at the Panchet dam in December 1959. Photo: Nehru Memorial Museum And Library, New Delhi .when Budhni returned to her village, Karbona, the village elders told her that by garlanding Nehru at the function she had in effect married him. Since the Prime Minister was not a Santhal, she was no longer a part of the community. She was told to leave the village. The inflexibility of the community ensured that the excommunication was complete.
    The youngster was given shelter by a resident of Panchet, Sudhir Dutta, from whom it was said she had a daughter, born to a destiny of exile like her mother. In 1962, Budhni was fired from her job at DVC and reduced to doing odd jobs.
    In the 1980s, she travelled to Delhi. She met the then Prime Minister, Rajiv Gandhi, grandson of the Prime Minister she had garlanded, with a request: she wanted to be reinstated at DVC.
    The last trace of Budhni was found in a 2001 news report uploaded on the website www.ambedkar.org. Headlined ‘Tribal ‘ wife' of Nehru is outcast, driven to poverty' it recounted these details of Budhni's life. Stating that the 58-year-old was working at DVC, the report quoted Budhni as saying, “I wish they would allow me to go back to Karbona.
    [furthur reading of this article _click and read:-http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/article3480638.ece]
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    Indian IT companies supported 2.8 lakh jobs in US last year: Nirupama Rao


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    Indian IT companies supported 2.8 lakh jobs in US last year: Nirupama Rao
    Indian Ambassador to the US, Nirupama Rao

    WASHINGTON: Indian IT companies supported as many as 2.8 lakh jobs in America last year amid a gloomy employment scenario in the US and have invested a whopping over five billion dollars in FDI through acquisitions and green-field projects, according to India's top envoy here. Addressing the Asia Society here yesterday, Indian Ambassador to the US, Nirupama Rao said, "Our IT companies supported 280,000 jobs in the US last year. "The IT companies have invested more than 5 billion dollars in FDI through acquisitions and green-field projects." "The unemployment rate in the tech-space in this country is much lower than in manufacturing and that is where the effort is concentrated we believe today -- to go back the jobs in manufacturing to this country," she said. Acknowledging that India's trade and economic relationship with the US has not scaled the heights reached in US trade and economic ties with China, she said there are goals yet to be achieved in this area. "The voices of Indian companies and business interests are often unheard in the audio stream of voices from the US side who are constantly urging India to 'do more' on the reform front," she said. In this crescendo from the American side, is the political economy and anthropology of India understood sufficiently? she asked. "There is no question of the tide of economic reform in India being reversed." "Look at the history of reform in India from 1991 onwards. Successive governments have come and gone, but the direction of reform has not been reversed, ever," she said. "Do not take us at face value. When the chips are down, our system responds very well. As our Prime Minister told Secretary Clinton when they met in Delhi in May, 'the message I would like you to carry is that India remains open, and the climate (of reform) will not be disrupted'. The India Story is definitely not over," the Ambassador said. 


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