Thursday, July 15, 2010

IRWIN STADIUM -DELHI-1933 MADE AND GIFTED BY MAHARAJA OF BHAVNAGAR TO DELHI--NOW RENAMED DHYAN CHAND NATIONAL STADIUM

MAIN STREET-- POONA[PUNE] 1930'S

BOMBAY 1920-BREACH CANDY BATHS-PHOTO



BOMBAY 1920-CRAWFORD MARKET AREA -PHOTO

BOMBAY 1920-VICTORIA RAIL TERMINUS[V.T.]AREA PHOTO

BOMBAY 1920-FLORA FOUNTAIN

18TH CENTURY BOMBAY-SHOWING EAST INDIA COMPANY WARE HOUSE ON HARBOR

ALEXANDRA DOCKS BOMBAY-PHOTO

Dabul, from John Ogilby's Asia, the first part, being an accurate description of Persia, the vast empire of the great Mogol, and other parts of India, etc.--Artist and engraver: Ogilby, John (fl.1673) Medium: Engraving Date: 1673

Dabul, from John Ogilby's Asia, the first part, being an accurate description of Persia, the vast empire of the great Mogol, and other parts of India, etc.
Egraving by John Ogilby (fl.1673) of Dabhol in the Konkan region of Maharashtra, dated 1673. Dhabol was of considerable importance in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. It was the principal port in the southern Konkan, carrying on trade with Cambay, Malabar, the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, and was the capital of a province of the Bijapur kingdom under Yusuf Adil Shah. John Ogilby was 'Cosmographer, Geographic Printer, and Master of His Majesty's revels in the Kingdom of Ireland' to Charles II. This image, re-engraved from an original Dutch print; hence the Dutch pennant inscription at the top, forms one of the illustrations to Ogilby's 'Asia, the first part, being an accurate description of Persia, the vast empire of the great Mogol, and other parts of India...', published in 1673. Ogilby's description of Dhabol reads, "Four Gau, or twelve Leagues from Chipolone, down the River Helewacko, lies the City Dabul, or Dabrul, anciently very famous, but of late much ruin'd by the Wars, and decreas'd in Trade...It lies open onely on the South-side which fronts the Water, where are two Batteries planted with four Iron Guns. On the Mountains are several decay'd Fortresses, and an ancient Castle, but without any Guns or Garrison. On the Northern Point, where the Bay begins, stands a little Wood, which at a distance appears like a Fort, and below this Wood, near the Water, is a white Temple, or Pagode; as also another on the South Point, on the declining Mountain, besides several other Temples and Stately Edifices."

Panoramic view of Bombay taken from Chinchpoogly hill, Parel, looking towards Cumballa hill and Warli--Artist: Griffiths, Linette Rebecca (b. 1843) Medium: Watercolour Date: 1870-

Panoramic view of Bombay taken from Chinchpoogly hill, Parel, looking towards Cumballa hill and Warli

Panoramic view of Bombay taken from Chinchpoogly hill, Parel, looking towards Cumballa hill and Warli

Watercolour drawing of Bombay taken from Chinchpoogly hill at Parel looking towards Cumballa hill and Warli by Linette Rebecca Griffiths (b. 1843) dating from c.1870s.
In 1661, Bombay was ceded to the British by the Portuguese as part of the marriage dowry of Catherine of Braganza when she married Charles II. The area of Bombay was originally composed of seven islands, including Parel. In the foreground of this late 19th-century view, we can see a townscape with a number of mill or factory chimneys punctuating the skyline. It was probably thanks to this industrialisation that the residence of the British Governor at Parel was moved to Malabar Point.


Panoramic view of Bombay taken from Chinchpoogly hill, Parel, looking towards Cumballa hill and Warli

Photographer: Unknown Medium: Photographic print Date: 1855

Malabar Point and Back Bay, Bombay.


Malabar Point and Back Bay, Bombay.

Malabar Point and Back Bay, Bombay.

Advert for Nubian Blacking, shoe polish

Advert for Nubian Blacking, shoe polish
Printer: Unknown
Medium: Print on paper
Date: 1879All outdoor boots and shoes were made from leather in the 19th century, and as such needed polishing to keep them clean. Until the end of the century, shoes were generally made to measure, and the expense involved in having shoes made meant that they had to be kept in very good condition. When not being worn they were filled with paper to preserve their shape, and linseed oil was often rubbed into the leather to keep it smooth.
This particular brand of shoe-polish has a racially suspect name. 'Nubia' was the name given by early French explorers to the region of north-eastern Africa around the huge Nile valley; 'Nubians' were by definition this area's inhabitant. While the word 'Nubian' clearly has always had racial connotations, by the 19th century some of these connotations were outright racist: Nubian was now a slang word in English meaning 'black slave'.

Advert For Condiments--Printer: Huxtable & Co Medium: Print on paper Date: 1880

Advert For Condiments

Holi festival, a nobleman watching the celebrations--Artist: unknown Medium: Watercolour Date: 1795

Holi festival, a nobleman watching the celebrations

Holi festival, a nobleman watching the celebrations
Watercolour drawing showing the Holi festival, by an anonymous artist working in the Patna school, c. 1795-1800. Inscribed on the back of the drawing is: 'No.4. The Gift of E.E. Pote Esqr. Elizath Collins. This is a Hindoo Festival celebrated, among other sports, by throwing a red powder enclosed in globes of Lak which break instantly and cover the party with the Powder - this is immediately returned - and thus by partial and promiscuous peltings - the whole Party are entirely covered with the red Powder. The Powder is also put in Water, and the Assembly attack each other with squirts filled with the red water - by the time the Party break up', 'they are so disfigured as scarce to be known'; also' The Festival of the Hoolee.'

Lord Hastings' flotilla on the river, with many pinnace budgerows--Artist: Sita Ram (fl. c.1810-1822) Medium: Watercolour Date: 1814

Lord Hastings' flotilla on the river, with many pinnace budgerows

Lord Hastings' flotilla on the river, with many pinnace budgerows

Lord Hastings' flotilla on the river, with many pinnace budgerows
Watercolour of a river scene on the Ganges river at Buxar from 'Views by Seeta Ram from Patna to Benares Vol. II' produced for Lord Moira, afterwards the Marquess of Hastings, by Sita Ram between 1814-15. Marquess of Hastings, the Governor-General of Bengal and the Commander-in-Chief (r. 1813-23), was accompanied by artist Sita Ram (flourished c.1810-22) to illustrate his journey from Calcutta to Delhi between 1814-15.

The Main Street, Bangalore.--Photographer: Unknown Medium: Photographic print Date: 1890--

The Main Street, Bangalore.
This photograph of a Main Street, Bangalore taken in the 1890s by an unknown photographer, is from the Curzon Collection's 'Souvenir of Mysore Album'.The note accompanying this photograph reads, "On either side of the roadway there are open stalls or bazaars, where the tradesmen display their wares arranged in tiers of shelves, all within reach of the salesman, who sits ensconsed among them. Those of a trade generally flock together. During the busy hours of the morning and afternoon, the streets are so thronged with people as to remind one of the crowded thoroughfares of London."

The Divan-i Khass in the Palace in the Delhi Fort--Artist: Ghulam 'Ali Khan (fl.1817-1852) Medium: Watercolour Date: 1817

The Divan-i Khass in the Palace in the Delhi Fort

The Divan-i Khass in the Palace in the Delhi Fort

Watercolour of the Divan-i Khass in the Palace in the Delhi Fort, by Ghulam 'Ali Khan, 1817. This drawing shows the red awnings and 'shamianas' fully rigged, a scene of vigorous activity beneath as a palanquin is prepared for the Emperor's departure, with various figures going about their duties. Inscribed beneath in ink in Persian: ''amal-i Ghulam 'Ali Khan musavvir fidvi-i Muhammad Akbar Shah Padshah Ghazi san 11 panjum mah-i shavval' (the work of Ghulam 'Ali Khan the painter, in the 11th year of Akbar Shah, 5th day of the month Shavval); and under the appropriate buildings from the left: ''aqb-i hamam' (back of the baths); 'naqsha-i anjuman-i Divan-i Khass dar darul khilafah Shahjahanabad' (the body of people in front of the Divan-i Khass)'; tasbih khana'(the emperor's prayer chamber on the south of the latter)'; hamam andrun-i mahall-i mubarak' (baths within the private part of the palace)'; jalau khana' (entrance hall on the extreme right)'; burj musamman' (on the golden dome). On the reverse is a faded inscription in English: 'Diwan Khass in the King's Palace ....' The Red Fort or Lal Qila, was constructed by Shah Jahan (r.1627-58) for his new city of Shahjahanabad. The Lahore gate was one of the main entrances to the fort and is composed of a central arch or 'pishtaq' with side towers. The octogonal-shaped fort complex is surrounded by high fortification walls of red sandstone which reach between 18-33 m in height. Key buildings inside the fort include the Diwan-i-Am (Hall of Public Audience), the Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audience), Moti Masjid, and the Khas Mahal (private chambers of the emperor).

The Great Gun of Agra lying beside the Fort wall--Artist: Sita Ram (fl. c.1810-1822) Medium: Watercolour Date: 1815

The Great Gun of Agra lying beside the Fort wall

The Great Gun of Agra lying beside the Fort wall

Watercolour of the Great Gun of Agra, lying unmounted on the bank of the Jumna below the Shah Burj of the Agra Fort, by Sita Ram, c. 1814-1815. Inscribed below: 'Doond Hanee or great Gun lying at Beessara Ghaut at Agra'.
The Great Gun of Agra can be seen lying unmounted on the bank of the Jumna River below the Shah Burj of the Agra Fort. A small temple and ruins of Mughal buildings can be seen in the foreground along with people (some inside the gun) and an elephant. In the distance across the river is the Taj Mahal and its red sandstone gateway. The Great Gun was once one of the sights of Agra and its name is apparently a corruption of 'dhun dhvani' ('Roar of an explosion'). It was destroyed in 1833 on the orders of the Governor-General Lord William Cavendish Bentinck, for the sale of the scrap metal to finance the construction of a permanent bridge across the Jumna at Agra.

A student of the Hindu College.Artist: Eden, Emily Medium: Lithograph Date: 1844

A young Native of Rank at Calcutta, a student of the Hindu College. A little Mussulman girl
This lithograph is taken from plate 18 of Emily Eden's 'Portraits of the Princes and People of India'. Eden described the image on the left as one of "a favourite and successful young student at the Hindoo College, in Calcutta, where scholars acquire a very perfect knowledge of English, and have a familiarity with the best English writers which might shame many of our own schools. The Hindoo youths have an extraordinary aptness and precocity as scholars, and their exhibitions are very interesting and gratifying. This young student, who was the son of a native gentleman of rank in Calcutta, recited English poetry with particular grace and propriety."

Surat on the Banks of the Tappee--Artist: Forbes, James Medium: Engraving Date: 1813

Surat on the Banks of the Tappee

Surat on the Banks of the Tappee
Plate twenty-seven from the first volume of James Forbes'"Oriental Memoirs", a work in the form of a series of letters richly illustrated, describing various aspects of nature, people and buildings he met with during his travels in India in the 1760s-70s. Forbes(1749-1819) spent most of his working-life in Gujarat where he held the post of Collector in Bharuch and Dhaboi. Of the Surat city in Gujarat on the banks of the river Tapti, Forbes noted, 'This engraving represents this celebrated city in the most interesting point of view, from the English Factory to the Dutch bunder, taken on the opposite side of the river. In the centre is the Castle, with the British and Mogul colours on the towers; the more distant flag surmounts the Portuguese Factory.'

Advert for Huntley & Palmer, biscuit manufacturer--Printer: Unknown Medium: Lithograph, coloured Date: 1882

Advert for Huntley & Palmer, biscuit manufacturer

This is an advertisement for Huntley & Palmers, a well known 19th Century biscuit manufacturing company. In 1822 Joseph Huntley opened an ironmongers opposite his brothers bakery in London Street, Reading. Joseph made airtight boxes for his brother Thomas’, biscuits so that they could be transported across the country staying fresh and unbroken. George Palmer joined the company in 1841 and introduced machinery to the biscuit production. By 1857, 5000 people were employed in their factory and it was the largest biscuit factory on the world. Palmer used their growing reputation to establish global links and soon biscuits were being exported to America, India and Australia.



Cook returning from the bazaar followed by a coolie carrying vegetables.-- Artist: Bani Lal (c.1850-1901) Medium: Watercolour Date: 1880

Watercolour of a cook returning from the bazaar, part of the Archer Collection, by Bani Lal (c.1850-1901), c. 1880.
The artist Bani Lal was known for his watercolours that portray Indian people performing trades and occupations. This drawing is rendered in the Patna style of Company painting and depicts two men returning from a bazaar. Company painting is a style of miniature painting that developed in the second half of the 18th century in response to the tastes and influences of the British serving with the East India Company. The style first emerged in Murshidabad in West Bengal and subsequentlyspread to other British centres, the most notable being Patna, Benares (Varanasi), Delhi andLucknow. Patna is in Bihar and is situated on the southern bank on the Ganges River.Cook returning from the bazaar followed by a coolie carrying vegetables.

Wednesday, July 14, 2010

Studio portrait of a father with his children at Delhi, taken by Shepherd and Robertson in c. 1863

Moguls. Delhi
This photograph is reproduced as illustration no. 197 in volume IV of 'The People of India' (1869). The image was shown at the Vienna Universal Exhibition in 1873 as part of an exhibit entitled 'The People of India' and consisting of 132 photographs from the publication. This photograph was shown in the section entitled 'Mahomedans' who were described as being "divided into four general classes...namely, Syud, Sheikh, Moghul and Pathan...The Moghuls are the descendants of of those immigrants into India who followed the Tartar and Toorky invasions, and who always constituted large proportions of the Imperial armies."

photograph of copper and iron mining scenes at Alwar in Rajasthan, taken by Thomas Cadell in c. 1873,

Copper and iron mining scenes, Alwar
This image, possibly of the entrance to the Dareeba copper mine, is one of a series of photographs shown at the Vienna Exhibition of the same year and mentioned in the exhibition catalogue by John Forbes Watson. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. The first official attempt to create a comprehensive record of Indian types was the 'The People of India'; an ethnographical survey edited by J.F.Watson and John William Kaye, and published in eight volumes from 1868 to1875.

Photograph of bill collectors at Madras in Tamil Nadu, taken by Nicholas & Curths in c. 1870

Bill collectors, Madras
After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. The first official attempt to create a comprehensive record of Indian types was the 'The People of India'; an ethnographical survey edited by John Forbes Watson and John William Kaye, and published in eight volumes from 1868 to1875. This image of a group posed with bills at the doorway of a house is from the series of 'Photographs illustrating various native classes, occupations, &c....Native bill collectors,' shown at the Vienna Exhibition of 1873 and mentioned in Watson's catalogue of the Vienna Exhibition.

[money collected for export to Britain?]

portrait of Maharao Sir Raghubir Singh, who ruled the state of Bundi in Rajasthan from 1889-1927, was taken by the state photographer.1900

Portrait of Maharao Sir Raghubir SinghGanpatrao Abajee Kale,
Sir Raghubir Singh, ca. 1900
Indian interest in photography is attested to by the fact that many of the princely rulers maintained an official photographer as part of their entourage, much as their forebears had supported court painters. This portrait of Maharao Sir Raghubir Singh, who ruled the state of Bundi in Rajasthan from 1889-1927, was taken by the state photographer.

Dyers at work, Western India--Photographer: Narayen, Shivashanker Medium: Photographic print Date: 1873

Dyers at work, Western India

William Johnson, Ghur-Baree (Householding) Gosaees, Bombay, 1850s

Portrait of two people

photograph of a cloth stamper seated at a low table on the verandah of a house in Western India, taken by Shivashanker Narayen in c. 1873,

Cloth stamper, Western India
The craft of block printing cotton fabrics is particularly associated with Gujarat. The motifs include flowers, animals, people and abstract designs. The wooden blocks, carved with the design to be printed, have a handle on the back. They are made from woods that are light in weight, gurjun (Dipterocarpus Turbinatus-Gaert) or seasoned teak (Tectona Grandis-Linn); the former wears better when used as a block. Fabrics are still printed this way in India to this day. This image is probably the photograph shown at the Vienna Exhibition of the same year, and described by Watson in catalogue as follows: 'Printing...This is done by wooden stamps, which are charged with the colouring matter, and applied one after the other as the design may require.'

unknown photographer in c. 1873--This image of a group of shoemakers seated at work on the verandah of a workshop

Country shoe makers, probably in Western India
This image of a group of shoemakers seated at work on the verandah of a workshop was shown at the Vienna Universal Exhibition of 1873. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. The first official attempt to create a comprehensive record of Indian types was the 'The People of India'; an ethnographical survey edited by John Forbes Watson and John William Kaye, and published in eight volumes from 1868 to1875.

A portrait of the Punt Pratinidhi? of Satara, seated with his servants, taken by Hurrichund Chintamon c. 1867,

The Punt Pratinidhi of Satara (a Brahmin).
This photograph was exhibited in the Paris Exhibition of 1867. Punt Pratinidhi was a Brahmin, the priestly caste of the Hindus and the uppermost caste of society. Both British and Indian photographers assisted the archaeological survey. Chintamon was an Indian photographer who made a notable contribution to the book 'The People of India', published by the India Museum in 1868-75. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. Ethnographical prints were produced by large photographic firms operating in India as well as by smaller or temporary studios to meet European demands for souvenirs from the East. Figures, like those in this image, were often posed to display their characteristic attributes and artefacts. Chintamon set up the first photographic firm in Bombay.

Women preparing cowdung cakes for fuel, Ahmadabad--Photographer: Narayen, Shivashanker Medium: Photographic print Date: 1870

Women preparing cowdung cakes for fuel, Ahmadabad
Photograph of two women fashioning cow dung into flat cakes at Ahmadabad in Gujarat, taken by Shivashanker Narayen in c. 1870, from the Archaeological Survey of India. Narayen contributed to the book 'The People of India', published by the India Museum in 1868-75. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. Cow dung is collected and made into flat round 'patties' which are dried on walls and roofs and then sold as fuel and used extensively on cooking fires and for heating. It has many other uses, including fertiliser and as a flooring material when mixed with mud and water.

Worker preparing thread for sari weaving ---Photographer: Shivashanker Narayen Medium: Photographic print Date: 1870

Worker preparing thread for sari weaving
In the early 1860s the Governor General of India Lord Canning commissioned ethnographical photographs for the whole of India. This image showing a worker crouching beside a spinning wheel [charkha] and paying off thread to a reel at the right, is probably one of the series of views of cotton manufacture shown by Narayan at the Vienna Exhibition of 1873.

Photograph of a Bhisti filling his Pukhal at Surat in Gujarat, taken by Shivashanker Narayen in c. 1870,

Bhisti filling his Pukhal, Surat
This image shows a water carrier pouring water from a leather bucket into the leather container slung over the back of a bullock. A description in Volume IV of 'The People of India' by John Forbes Watson states, "A Bheestie or Pukkalli [using a bulllock - as in this image] is a domestic servant in every Mahomedan household in India which can afford to keep one. In wealthy families several may be kept, and in English families, regimental messes, and the like, the same custom prevails. Where a special servant cannot be afforded, Bheesties deliver as many potsful or skinsful as may be needed during the day, and are paid in proportion. They also serve in the regular army, both in the infantry and the cavalry &c. In the infantry one or two are attached to every company, European and Native, as it has also its barber and washerman. They accompany the regiment on its march, filling their bags from running streams or cool wells as fast as they are emptied by the thirsty soldiers. They also go into action their corps, supplying water under the hottest fire...In cavalry regiments a Pukkal Bheestie...is also on the establishment of every troop, in the proportion of one to twenty-five or thirty horses...The Pukkalli is very fond of his bullock, and takes great care of it." Watson and Kaye's 'The People of India', published in eight volumes from 1868 to1875, was the first official attempt to create a comprehensive record of Indian types.

photograph of turban folders at work in India, taken by Shivashanker Narayen in c. 1873,

Bhattia turban folders at work
This image, of a group of workers folding turbans on wooden model heads, was probably shown at the Vienna Universal Exhibition of the same year. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. The first official attempt to create a comprehensive record of Indian types was the 'The People of India'; an ethnographical survey edited by J.F.Watson and John William Kaye, and published in eight volumes from 1868 to1875.

Photograph of a gold puggree border weaver at work in India, taken by Shivashankar Narayan in c. 1873

Gold puggree border weaver
This image shows a craftsman weaving the border of a puggree, an expensive turban, made of gold thread; thread which has been mixed with gold wire made from gold leaf melted onto silver bars and forced through small holes in a steel plate to form very fine gauge wires. Metal threads from India were considered less likely to tarnish than products from other sources. The pulleys of the narrow loom pictured are affixed to the wall opposite the weaver and also to the ceiling of the small workshop and there appear to be regimental badges attached to the wall. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions.

Photograph of carpenters at work at Madras in Tamil Nadu, taken by Nicholas & Curths in c. 1870,

Group of carpenters at work, Madras

Carpenters and woodcarvers in Tamil Nadu come from the Kammaalar caste and the type of work performed is dictated by caste divisions. Carpenters produce complex carved work for temples, including temple cars, ornately carved front doors and verandah columns for houses, musical instruments and agricultural implements. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. Amateur photographers became increasingly interested in ethnography. In the early 1860s the Governor General of India Lord Canning commissioned ethnographical photographs for the whole of India

Photograph of two zardozis (gold lace makers) at Delhi in India, taken by Shepherd & Robertson in c. 1863,

Zunlozis, Gold lace makers, Delhi

This image is reproduced in 'The People of India', vol IV, (no. 187). The accompanying text states "The photograph shows a man at work, with his assistant, who may be required occasionally, but who for the present is looking on. The workman is seated on a rude stool, which has a rest for his right hand. The treadles of his simple loom, worked by his feet, are seen below, and the cross pieces above are the heddles and strings which hold his materials for the pattern he is working, and which is effected by skilful manipulation...Thus are woven some of the most wonderful and beautiful fabrics in the world. Tissues of gold and silver, plain and figured, with and without a mixture of silk or cotton in flowers and patterns; gold and silver tissue lace of all breadths and patterns, used for trimming scarves, and for bridal dresses; larger scarves of muslin and tissue combined, as those of Benares; and that wonderful cloth of gold called kumkhab or kincob, which is without parallel in the ornamental manufactures of the world. All these are comparatively little known as yet in Europe; but in the various International Exhibitions in England and France, specimens have been exhibited, which have excited alike wonder and admiration." It was held that metal threads from India were less likely to tarnish than similar products from other sources.

Domestic servants at Madras in Tamil Nadu, taken by Nicholas & Curths in c. 1870,

Domestic servants, Madras
Posed studio group of domestic servants at Madras in Tamil Nadu, taken by Nicholas & Curths in c. 1870, from the Archaeological Survey of India Collections.
After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. The first official attempt to create a comprehensive record of Indian types was the 'The People of India'; an ethnographical survey edited by John Forbes Watson and John William Kaye, and published in eight volumes from 1868 to1875. This image shows four domestic servants in a European household posed in the act of performing various tasks. It was shown at the Vienna Exhibition of 1873 and is mentioned in Watson's exhibition catalogue.