Wednesday, June 22, 2011



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Glimpses of old Bombay and western India, with other papers (1900)

Parsee Ladies' stall at a bazaar held at Bombay--in aid of Lady Minto's fund for the
provision of medical women in India," from The Graphic, 1889


Parsee Tower of Silence, India," a chromolithograph from a book
published in 1881*

Parsee children, Bombay," from 'India and its Native Princes' by Louis Rousselet, 1878*

Pulikesin II exchanges envoys with Sassanaid Khusro II

Around 625-26 AD , Chalukya King Pulakesin II (AD 610-42)
exchanged envoys with Sassanian King Khusrau II (AD 596- 626). The same has been depicted in Ajantha Cave I. This information is also mentioned by persian historian Tabari, who says in the 35th year of Khusrau perviz reign an Indian King Pharmeish or paramesa(parmeswara - title of pulakesin) sent to an ambassador carrying letters and presents to monarch and sons.The return embassy by Khusrau is depicted in Ajanta.

The Emperors of Shilahar dynasty were disciples of Lord Shiva and the Kopineshwar Temple has been built during their reign

At this time the Shilahars also divided the city into different sections and named them as ‘padas’. It is seen that these padas exist even today by names of Naupada, Patlipada, Agripada etc.

The first census took place in the year 1881 and the population of Thane at the time was 14,456

Mumbai Names 3

This one comes after a long gap after I wrote Mumbai Names 1 and Mumbai Names 2. The Bombay Gazette also mentions that many of the names of places in Bombay are very naturally of Koli origin. Kolis are nature and tree worshippers and thus names of so many areas are associated with trees and vegetables. This list is still incomplete and to be continued…

Cumballa Hill: This area near Kemps Corner is named because of the huge number of ‘kamals’, i.e. lotus groves that used to grow here. Today, Cumballa Hill does not have any lotuses growing but has many skyscrapers and some old buildings inhabited by Parsis.

Dharavi: Asia’s largest slum located between Sion and Mahim gets its name as it was at the site at the doors to the island. (dar - door in Marathi)

Bhuleshwar: This very old area of South Bombay which also houses the flower market gets it name from the God-Shiva in the form of “Bhola” and thus Bhuleshwar.

Byculla: This name is supposed to be of early Hindu origin. This area used to have a lot of ‘bhaya’-'cassia fistula’ shrubs and this word was combined with ‘khala’ or level ground. Byculla is a very important train station on the Central Railway between Chinchpokli and Sandhurst Road.

Tardeo: This area near Bombay Central station derived its name from the trees of 'tad’or palms that were flourishing below the Cumballa Hill. A deity('dev') was also named and installed here and thus the name tad-dev.

Babulnath: There used to be a huge plantation of ‘Babul’ or acacia

arabica in this area, which is at the foothills of Malabar Hill. The deity of the temple built later (Shiva) also took this name and is a well-visited place of worship and is located very close to Chowpatty.

Chowpatty: The name became generic for all the beaches in Bombay- Girgaum, Juhu and Dadar but it was meant for the Girgaum ‘chaupatty’ because of the probable existence of four channels of inlets of sea near Girgaum.


Wadala: This area located near Dadar T.T./Kings Circle was so named because of the banyan tree rows it that used to exist in this area. The name is a corruption of Wadali. Wad, which is the Marathi name for Banyan

and Ali, which means row.

Mahim: Mahim was a desert island washed by the waters of the western sea and sparsely populated by families of Koli fishermen. According to the Bombay Gazette, King Bimbadev (A.D. 1300) the mystery King and indisputable founder of Bombay, had built a city called Mahikavati from where the name Mahi or Mahim has been derived.

Naigaum: This area (Nyaygrama) near Dadar (Central) was so named as King Bimbadev used to have a palace here where he used to have a ‘court of justice’ and a ‘hall of audience’. Nyay means justice in Marathi.



1863 Jugonnath Sunkersett president of the Victoria and Albert Museum committee Bombay--- and his excellency mr Frere laying the chief corner stone of the museum

1857 Fashion Dresses

[1] 1859 Cursetjee Jamsetjee Bombay
[2]Paris Fete Camp Maur

David Sassoon industrial and reformatory institute ,Bombay 1859


During this period the Thana coast was famous for its ship-building. Between 1550 and 1600 great ships built at Agashi and Bassein made many voyages to Europe, [Do Couto, IV. 99. Pyrard, French Edition. II. 114. No place had better timber than Bassein, Ditto, 115,] and, in 1634, the English had four pinnaces built for the coast trade, two at Daman and two at Bassein. [Bruee's Annals, I, 334.]The Portuguese historian Gaspar Correa gives a fuller description than any previous writer of the craft which were built at this time in the Konkan ports. The local boats in ordinary use were of two kinds, one which had the planking joined and sewn together with coir thread, the other whose planks were fastened with thin nails with broad heads which were rivetted inside with other broad heads fitted on. The ships sewn with coir had keels, those fastened with nails were fiat-bottomed; in other respects they were alike. The planks of the ship-sides went as high as the cargo, and above the planks were cloths thicker than bed-sacking and pitched with bitumen mixed with fish and-cocoanut oil. Above the cloths were cane mats of he length of the ship, woven and very strong, a defence against the sea which let no water pass through. Inside, instead of decks, were chambers for the cargo covered with dried and woven palm-leaves, forming a shelving roof off which the rain ran and left the goods dry and unhurt. Above the palm-leaves cane mats, were stretched, and on these the seamen walked without doing any harm. The crew were lodged above; no one had quarters below where the merchandise was stored. There was one large mast and two ropes on the sides, and one rope at the prow like a stay, and two halliards Which came down to the stern and helped to hold the mast. The yard had two-thirds of its length abaft and one-third before the mast, and the sail Avas longer abaft than forward by one-third. They had only a single sheet, and the tack of the sail at the bow was made fast to the end of a sprit, almost as large as the mast with which they brought the sail very forward, so that they steered very close to the wind and set the sails very flat. They had no top-masts and no more than one large sail. The rudder, which was very large and of thin planks, was moved by ropes which ran along the outside of the ship. The anchors were of hard wood, and they fastened stones to the shanks so that they went to the bottom. They carried their drinking water in square and high tanks. [Vasco da Gama's Three Voyages, 239-242. A full account of the Portuguese shipping about 1600 is given in Pyrard, II. 118.]
Of Gujarat boats the ordinary deep-sea traders were apparently from 100 to 150 tons burden. Besides these, there were in the sixteenth century some great vessels from 600 to 1000 tons burden, [In 1510 Albuquerque found a beautiful fleet at Ormuz rigged out with Hags, Standards, and coloured ensigns. One of them was 600 tons and another 1000 tons, with many guns and fire-arms, and with men in sword-proof dresses. She was so well fitted that she required nothing from the king's magazine. She had three great stone anchors. Corn. I. 105; II. 122.] and in the seventeenth century, in the pilgrim traffic between Surat and Mocha, still larger ships were used, from 1400 to 1600 tons and able to carry 1700 passengers. [1618, Terry in Kerr's Voyages, IX. 391, 392. One reason for building such large ships was that they might put to sea in the stormy months and avoid the Portuguese 'The Gujaratis load their great ships of 900, 1200, and 1,500 tons at. Gogha, and steal out unknown to the Portuguese.' These ships were called Monsoon Junks (Kerr's Voyages, IX. 230). They are described as ill-built like an overgrown lighter broad and short but exceeding big (Terry's Voyage, 130). The scantlings of the Rahimi of 1500 tons were length 153 feet, breadth 42 feet, depth 31 feet. Kerr's Voyages. VIII 487. Part of the crew in these big vessels were often Dutch. Baldaeus in Churchill, III. 513.]
Goa was also a great ship-building place. In 1508 the Portuguese found that the carpenters and calkers of the king of Bijapur had built ships and galleys after the model of the Portuguese, [Com. of Alb. II. 32.] and in 1510 twelve very large ships were built after the model of the Flor de la Mar. [Com, of Alb. II, 87.]
According to Varthema (1500) the Kalikat boats were open and of three or four hundred butts in size. They were built without oakum, as the planks were joined with very great skill. They laid on pitch outside and used an immense quantity of iron nails. The sails were of cotton, and at the foot of each sail was a second sail which they spread to catch the wind. Their anchors were of stone fastened by two large ropes. [Badger's Varthema, 152-154. Of these larger ships the flat-bottomed were called Sambuchis and those with keels Capels. Sambuchis seem to be Sambuks and Capels the same as Caravels, round lateen-rigged boats of 200 tons. (Com. of Alb. I. 4). Of smaller boats there werepraus of ten paces, all of one piece with oars and a cane mast; almadias also all of one piece with a mast and oars; and katurs two-prowed, thirteen paces long, and very narrow and swift. These katurswere used by piratea (Ditto). A few years later Barbosa (p. 147) describes the ships of the Moors of Kalikat, as of about 200 tons, with keels but without nails, the planks sewn with mat cords, well pitched, the timber very good. They were without decks, but had divisions for stowing the merchandise separately.] One of these Kalikat vessels is mentioned of 140 tons, with fifty-two of a crew, twenty to bail out water and for other purposes below, eight for the helm, four for the top and yard business, and twenty boys to dress provisions. [1612, Dounton in Kerr's Voyages, VIII. 425.]Very large boats are mentioned as trading to the Coromandel coast. [1500, Vasco da Gama's Three Voyages, 339. They carried more than 1000 measures of Pice of 105 pecks each.]
Many foreign ships visited the Thana ports. In the beginning of the sixteenth century, Maskat was a great ship-building place. In 1510 Albuquerque found two very large ships ready to launch and a fleet of thirty-four ships great and small. [Commentaries, I. 71, 81, 82.] The establishment of Portuguese power in the Persian Gulf seems to have depressed the local seamen, as in the beginning of the seventeenth century the Persian Gulf boats are described as from forty to sixty tons, the planks sewn with date fibre and the tackle of date fibre. The anchor was the only bit of iron.[John Bldredin Kerr's Voyages, VIII. 6.] The Red Sea ships were larger and better built and were managed with great skill. [One is mentioned in 1500 of 600 tons and 300 fighting men and bands of music with seven elephants (Kerr's Voyages, II. 412); another in 1502 had 700 men (Vasco da Gama's Three Voyages, 315); another in the same year had 300 passengers (Kerr's Voyages, II. 435-436).] In the beginning of the sixteenth century large junks from Java and Malacca came to the Coromandel and Malabar coasts, and may occasionally have visited Chaul. [Stanley's Barbosa, 193; Albuquerque's Commentaries, III. 63. So skilful were the Java boat-builders that Albuquerque (1511) brought sixty of them to Goa, Ditto, III. 168.]
The greatest change in the shipping of this period was the introduction of the square-rigged Portuguese vessels. They caused much astonishment at Anjidiv; the people had never seen any ships like them. [1498, Kerr's Voyages, II. 388.

What astonished the people was the number of ropes and the number of sails; it was not the size of the ships. Vasco da Gama's Three Voyages, 145, 149.] The vessels in Vasco da Gama's first fleet (1497-1500) varied from two hundred to fifty tons. [The details were, the San Gabriel, the San Raphael, the Birrio, and a transport for provisions called a naveta (Lindsay's Merchant Shipping, II. 4). The size of these boats is generally given at from 100 to 209 tons (Kerr's Voyages, II, 521). But Mr. Lindsay thinks they were larger between 250 and 300 tons register. The picture he gives shows the San Gabriel to have been a three-masted vessel with a high narrow poop and a high forecastle. The Gujarat batela and the Arab botel seem from their name (Port, batel a boat) and from the shape of their sterns to have been copied from Portuguese models. See Appendix A.] The size was soon increased to 600 and 700 tons [The 1502 fleet was one 700, one 500, one 450, one 350, one 230, and one 160-ton ships, Kerr's Voyages, II. 521; in the 1503 fleet was one 600-ton ship. Ditto, V. 510.]a change which had the important effect of forcing foreign trade to centre at one or two great ports. Of smaller vessels the Portuguese had caravels and galleys. [In 1524 Vasco da Gama brought out some caravels which were fitted with lateen rigging in Dabhol. Three Voyages, 308. Of galleys Dom Joao de Castro (1540) notices three kinds: bastardos from 20 to 300 tons, 130 soldiers and 140 men decked, with sails and 27 benches of three oars; subtis, 25 benches of three oars, the crew and size the same as bastardos; and fustas, smaller with 17 benches of two oars. Primeiro Roteiro, 275.]Before the close of the sixteenth century the size of the European East Indiamen had greatly increased. As early as 1590, the Portuguese had ships of 1600 tons; in 1609 the Dutch had ships of 1000 tons; and in 1615 there was an English ship of 1293 tons.


Catherine of Braganza, Queen of Britain, wife of Charles II

In November 1664, the island of Bombay passed from the Portuguese to the English. The English had for years been anxious to gain a station on the Konkan coast. [In 1625 the Directors proposed that the Company should take Bombay. Accordingly, in 1626, the President at Surat suggested to the Dutch a joint occupation of the island, but the Dutch declined, and the scheme was abandoned (Bruee'a Annals, I. 273). In 1640 the Surat Council brought Bombay to notice as the best place on the west coast of India for a station (Ditto, I. 366), and, in 1652, they suggested that Bombay and Bassein should be bought from the Portuguese (I. 472). In 1654, in an address to Cromwell, the Company mentioned Bassein and Bombay as the meat suitable places for an English settlement in India (I. 488). In 1659 the Surat Council recommended that an application should be made to the King of Portugal to cede someplace on the west coast, Danda-Rajpuri, Bombay, or Versova (Ditto, I. 548). Finally, at the close of 1661 (7th December), in a letter which must have crossed the Directors' letter telling of the cession of Bombay, the President at Surat wrote (Ditto, II. III) that, unless a station could be obtained which would place the Company's servants cut of the reach of the Moghal and Shivaji and render them independent of the overbearing Dutch, it would be more prudent to bring off their property and servants, than to leave them exposed to continual risks and dangers. It was its isolated position rather than its harbour that made the English covet Bombay. Then and till much later, Bombay harbour was by many considered too big. In 1857, in meeting objections urged against Karwar on the ground of its smallness, Captain Taylor wrote (27th July 1857), ' Harbours can be too large as well as too small. The storms of 1837 and 1854 show us that Bombay would be a better port if it was not open to the south-west,, and had not an expanse of eight miles of water to the south-east.' Bom. Gov. Rec. 248,of 1862-64, 29, 30.] In June 1661, as part of the dower of his sister Katherine, the King of Portugal ceded the island and harbour of Bombay, which the English understood to include Salsette and the other harbour islands.

[According to Captain Hamilton (1680-1720), 'the royalties appending on Bombay reached as far as Versovt. in Silsette.' (New Account, 1. 185). This does not agree with other writers and is probably inaccurate.] In March 1662 a fleet of five men-of-war, under the command of the Earl of Marlborough, with Sir Abraham Shipman and 400 men accompanied by a new Portuguese Viceroy, left England for Bombay. Part of the fleet reached Bombay in September 1662 and the rest in October 1662. On being asked to make over Bombay and Salsette to the English, the governor contended that the island of Bombay had alone been ceded, and on the ground of some alleged irregularity in the form of the letters or patent, he refused to give up even Bombay. The Portuguese Viceroy declined to interfere, and Sir Abraham Shipman was forced to retire first to Suvali at the mouth of the Tapti, and then to the small island of Anjidiv off the Karwar coast. Here, cooped up and with no proper supplies, the English force remained for more than two years, losing their general and three hundred of the four hundred men. In November 1664, Sir Abraham Shipman's successor Mr. Humfrey Cooke, to preserve the remnant of his troops, agreed to accept Bombay without its dependencies, and to grant special privileges to its Portuguese residents.

[ Cooke renounced all claims to the neighbouring islands, promised to exempt the Portuguese from customs, to restore deserters, runaway slaves, husbandmen, and craftsmen, and not to interfere with the Roman Catholic religion. Trans. Bom, Geog. Soc. III. 68-71. These terms were never ratified either by the English or by the Portuguese, Anderson's English in Western India, 53. According to Mr. James Douglas, Kolaba Point or Old Woman's Island was at first refused as not being part of Bombay. It and 'Putachos,' apparently Butcher's Island, seem to have been taken in 1666. Fryer's New Account, 64.] In February 1665, when the island was handed over, only 119 Englishmen landed in Bombay.[ The details were, the Governor, one ensign, four Serjeants, six corporals, four drummers, one surgeon, one surgeon's mate, two gunners, one gunner's mate; one gunsmithy and ninety-seven privates, Bruce's Annals, II. 157.] At the time of the transfer the island is said to have had 10,000 Inhabitants and to have yielded a revenue of about £2800 (Rs.28,000). [Fryer's New Account, 68; Warden in Bom. Geog. Soc. Trans. III: 45, 46.]

The cession of Bombay and its dependencies was part of a scheme under which England and Portugal were to join in resisting the growing power of the Dutch. A close alliance between the English and the Portuguese seemed their only chance of safety. In 1656 the Dutch had driven the Portuguese from Ceylon. They were besieging the English at Bantam and blockading the Portuguese at Goa; ' If the Dutch took Goa, Diu must follow, and if Diu fell, the English Company might wind up their affairs.' [Bruce's Annals, I. 522;Baldaeas in Churchill, III. 545.] The scheme was ruined by the looseness of the connection between the Portuguese in Europe and the Portuguese in India. The local Portuguese feeling against the cession of territory was strong, and the expression of the King's surprise and grief at their disobedience failed to overcome it. [The King of Portugal to the Viceroy, 16th August 1663. Trans. Bom. Geog. Soc. III.67] Bitter hatred, instead of friendship, took the place of the old rivalry between the Portuguese and the English. [ Besides soreness at being ' choused by the Portugels' (Pepya' Diary, Chandos Ed. 155) the English were embittered by the efforts of the Jesuits to stir up disaffection in Bombay, and by the attempt of the Portuguese authorities to starve them out of the island by the levy of heavy dues on all provision-boats passing Thana or Karanja on their way to Bombay. Bruce, II. 175, 214. Of the relations between the Portuguese in India and the Portuguese in Europe, Fryer writes (New Account, 62), ' The Portuguese in East India will talk big of their King and how nearly allied to them, as if they were all cousm-germans at least. But for his commands, if contrary to their factions, they value them no more than if they were merely titular.] Without the dependencies which were to have furnished supplies and a revenue, the island was costly, and, whatever its value as a place of trade, it was no addition of strength in a struggle with the Dutch. The King determined to grant the prayer of the Company and to hand them Bombay as a trading station.

On the first of September 1668, the ship Constantinople arrived at Surat, bringing the copy of a Royal Charter bestowing Bombay on the Honourable Company. The island was granted ' in as ample a manner as it came to the crown,' and was to be held on the payment of a yearly quit-rent of £10 in gold. With the island were granted all stores arms and ammunition, together with such political powers as were necessary for its defence and government. [Bruce's Annals, II. 199. The troops which formed the Company's first military establishment in Bombay numbered 198, of whom five were commissioned officers, 139 non-commissioned officers and privates, and Sixty-four hat-wearing half-castes or topazes. There were twenty-one pieces of cannon and proportionate stores. Ditto, 240.] In these three years of English management the revenue of the island had risen from about £3000 to about £6500. [The details are given in Warden's Landed Tenures of Bombay, 8]



Jamsetjee Bomanjee Wadia (1756-1821), (oil painting byJ. Dorman) and the American national anthem

He was a great Indian shipbuilder and was the master-builder at Bombay Dockyard from 1792 to 1821, a post he shared with his cousin Framji Manackjee until the latter's death in 1804. Although their work had been praised by successive British commanders-in-chief in India, from Admiral Sir Edward Hughes in 1781 onwards, the seal was set on Jamsetjee Bomanjee's work when he laid down
the 'Minden'. This was the first ship of the line to be built for the Royal Navy out of England.

Like all the Bombay ships she was built of teak and very strong and durable. On her delivery to England their Lordships of the Admiralty sent Bomanjee a letter of appreciation and a piece of plate.

The one ship that the Wadias built and of most historic significance for Parsis is the H.M.S. Minden.
The Bombay Courier, June 23, 1810 wrote:

“On Tuesday last His Majesty’s Ship, the “Minden” built in the new docks (Bombay) by Jamshedji Bomanji Wadia was floated into the stream at high water, after the usual ceremony of breaking the bottle had been performed by the Honorable Governor Jonathan Duncan.

In having produced the “Minden”, Bombay is entitled to the distinguished praise of providing the first and only British ship of the line built out of the limits of the Mother Country; and in the opinion of very competent judges, the “Minden”, for beauty of construction and strength of frame, may stand in competition with any man-o-war that has come out of the most celebrated Dockyards of Great Britain. For the skill of its architects, for the superiority of its timber, and for the excellence of its docks, Bombay may now claim a distinguished place among naval arsenals”.

A young American lawyer, Francis Scott Key was sent on board the British ship “Minden”, in Chesapeake Bay to negotiate the release of a friend who had been captured after the defeat of the US forces in Maryland. Key was detained on the ship overnight while the British attacked Baltimore. “At the dawn’s early light” amidst the “rockets’ red glare”, he saw the American flag still flying high over Fort McHenry which inspired him to hurriedly scribble on an envelope a poem, that was to become :-

the Star Spangled Banner, national anthem of United States of America!

The Star Spangled Banner Lyrics
By Francis Scott Key 1814

Oh, say can you see by the dawn's early light
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming?
Whose broad stripes and bright stars thru the perilous fight,
O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming?
And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.
Oh, say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

On the shore, dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
In full glory reflected now shines in the stream:
'Tis the star-spangled banner! Oh long may it wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

And where is that band who so vauntingly swore
That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion,
A home and a country should leave us no more!
Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution.
No refuge could save the hireling and slave
From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave:
And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

Oh! thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
Between their loved home and the war's desolation!
Blest with victory and peace, may the heav'n rescued land
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation.
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
And this be our motto: "In God is our trust."
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,[battle_of_fort_mchenry.]
He also built four more two-deckers for the Navy. The lower hull of one of these, the 74-gun 'Cornwallis' of 1813, survived in use as depot ship and floating jetty at Sheerness from the 1870s to 1957, when it was still so strong that it had to be broken up using explosives. A model of 'Cornwallis', built by Jamsetjee's son at the same time as the ship, is the largest sailing warship model in the National Maritime Museum collection

{In the portrait the sitter is wearing a shawl and it was customary for the ship-builders to be given shawls by the representatives of the East India Company at the launching of a new ship. Jamsetjee Bomanjee was one of the famous Lowjee family of Parsi shipbuilders active in Bombay from the early 19th century and was highly respected there and by the East India Company Court of Directors in London. He was also the first Parsi entrusted by the Admiralty with the building of a man-of-war in India.}





Quail Snaring with Trained Cattle"*, 1883

ASI [Archaeological Survey of India ]- fish out Elephanta island’s Roman links


 Extensive explorations on the island—its shores and the beaches—have revealed a treasure indicating existence of a rich trade with the late Roman Empire during the 4th to 7th century AD.

The findings establish it as a significant port of the period—a fact hitherto unknown. And that people on the west coast liked imported goods and Roman wine. The small island, east of Mumbai, was, so far, best known for its cave temples and rock-cut images, specially of the monolithic elephant which once stood on its southern tip.
With the Underwater Archaeology Wing of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) finding late Roman amphorae, coins and sherds of pottery — including red polished ware, black slipped ware, red ware and some gray ware — on Elephanta, the stage is now set for a proper excavation around the island. The finding had come as a surprise, since so far, large number of amphorae were found only in Kanchipuram and Arikamedu.
Amphora is one of the principal vessel shapes in Greek pottery. They are handled pots used to transport a variety of things including olives, cereals, oil, wine, fish and even metal.

Head of ASI’s Underwater Archaeology Wing Dr Alok Tripathi had been quietly exploring the island since 1988, but it’s only in the last two years that extensive explorations were done. The richest site turned out to be the area around village Mora Bandar on the island.
‘‘The discovery of a large variety of amphorae and other antiquities on the island may solve some of the historical riddles,’’ said Tripathi. In addition to indicating continuity of trade with the western world during 5th-7th century AD, the findings may also answer why Chalukya King Pulakesin II of Badami had invaded this small island with a tiny population and limited natural resources in 634 AD.
File:Chalukya territories lg.png
‘‘We probably know why he did it. Elephanta appears to have been a prosperous island with a thriving trade,’’ said the underwater archaeologist. It is all the more significant since around the same period, the cave temple on the island, enshrining Mahesmurti, was excavated.
Since the explorations had yielded rich treasures, the next logical thing is to undertake detailed survey and excavation. Tripathi said that the area around Mora Bandar is strewn with a large number of potsherds. ‘‘Even the sand on the shore, at the north and the east of the village, is full of potsherds washed away and rolled by the waves,’’ he said.

Miseries of the First of the Month p75

The Burning System Illustrated p79

Missionary Influence or How to Make Converts p95

Labour in Vain or His Reverence Confounded p117

Qui Hi at Bobbery Hill p295

Qui Hi's Last March to adree Burrows's Go Down p321

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