Monday, April 11, 2011

yearly mails to weekly mails 19 th century-[6-]Glimpses of old Bombay and western India, with other papers (1900)



[PART-1Ahttp://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/09/1a-bombaymumbai-taxi-1850-to-2001-also_3982.html

[PART-1Bhttp://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/09/1-b-bombaymumbai-taxi-1850-to-2001-also.html

PART-2]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/glimpses-of-ol-bombay-and-western.html

[PART-3]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/glimpses-of-old-bombay-and-western_02.html

[PART-4]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/4glimpses-of-old-bombay-and-western.htm


[PART-6]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/6.html

[PART-7]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/6-glimpses-of-old-bombay-and-western.html

[PART-8]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/7.htm


[PART-9]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/first-anglo-maratha-war-was-first-of.html

[PART 10]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/06/bombay-history-of-cinema-1896-and.html

[part11]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/06/indian-modes-of-irrigation1874-elephant.html

6               DEDICATED TO THE FIRST CITY-MUMBAI-[BOMBAY] ;OF INDIA.part-6 OF 12

Glimpses of old Bombay and western India, with other papers (1900)


DELAY OF DAK POST,TRAVEL DIFFICULTIES,DACOITY OF POST AT PAREL,TIGER ATTACK POST AT SALCETTE(VASAI)BULLOCK CARTS,PALKIS,HORSE OMNIBUSES,BUGGIES,TRAMS
















In 1841

the steamer generally took three hours from the time she was signalled until she was anchored, and three hours more were required to sort the letters.

The transport of the mails before this throughout India was generally done by dak-runners, who ran three koss, or six miles, with the mail bags, and had often to cross swollen rivers.
In 1810 the mail to the north was robbed by a gang of persons on Parell road.
parel government house
From 1816 to 1821 the Calcutta dak to Bombay, 1,300 miles, took eighteen and a half days, which was reduced in 1824 to twelve days seven and a half hours, and this was thought extraordinarily quick.
The arrival of the Calcutta mail was always a source of general interest, for, from the condition in which the letters arrived, was judged what the weather was in the interior.

The H.M.S. Calcutta 
Absolutely,, this was all people then had in place of our elaborate daily telegraphic weather reports.

The corre- spondence with Calcutta was limited.
 In 1826 the mail was lost between Calcutta and Nagpore. It consisted of only fortyfive letters.

In 1833 the Surat dak-tapal was drowned,
and in 1850 a mail gharry in Salsette was bowled over by a tiger,





 and nobody was hurt
Edwin Lord Weeks's oil painting An Indian Gharry
. And on one occasion, before 1843, her Majesty's mails were lost in a buggalow eighty miles from Aden, but were recovered, though much saturated.
                                                              Buggalow ship of aden


In 1853 the postage on a daily paper for a moderate distance in India was Rs. 50 per annum. In 1859 first-class fare, Southampton to London, was reduced from £95 to £85


. People who came in the vans or omnibuses from Cairo to Suez in the " fifties " did not soon forget it. They were well horsed, but the road was a caution — mounds of sand and gravel.
We had a bi-monthly mail in 1845. In 1860, July 6th, fortnightly mails commenced.
Click to see the entire image and source.
In 1868, March 23rd, " we are now hourly expecting our first weekly mail."

                                             Carriages. We will now speak of carriages.

The Governor had a carriage, at an early time, say, in Grose's period, 1760,
A barouche, a carriage of German origin which was introduced into England in the 1760s

                                         
A coach and six


                                                                  bullock gharries
were quite fashionable in the end of last century, and Mr. Vaupell of the High Court, until he died in 1852, used to delight in driving a pair of fast-trotting oxen from Bandora to the Fort daily.


In Qui Hi's last journey to Padre Burrough's Godown (1814), the tattered and lugubrious hearse is depicted as drawn by oxen. But carriages soon began to prevail.

 In 1821 Mr. Mitchell advertises that he will not do any business in coach-building except for ready-money, so the demand had exceeded the supply on credit.


photo

The Modern Idol Jaggernaut



In 1824 Mr. Lewis Collett advertises that he will continue the coach- making business of Mr. John Mitchell, and soon Collett's equipages were in the language of the day " all the go.

" For business locomotion the palky was everywhere,


 but the last specimen in Bombay will soon, like the sedan chairs of our great-grandmothers, be relegated to the museum of antiquities.
1 am sure the Esplanade was never so crowded with fashionable equipages as it was in the season of 1865.

It was a perfect carnival. Steamers 


were then coming with sometimes a million sterling of bar silver, an instalment of the eighty millions of profits which were said to have been
made by Bombay traders during the American cotton famine, and the display of wealth did not seem out of proportion to the means of that period of exaltation.

These were the days when bungalows were wanted at Rs. 500, and Altamont was let at Rs. 1,000 a month.

It would be impossible in a sketch like this to chronicle even the names that were borne by the vehicles of this century, and which prevailed at different periods.

In the few years which succeeded 1818 we read of chariots,


Bengal-built dennets, coaches,
DENNET COACH



                                                barouches,

  barouches,


                                                          shigrampos,




                                                                curricles,



                                                               buggies,


HORSE AND BUGGY


                                                                  tilburys,

tilburys, 

sociables, landaulets



, britzskas



 and clarences.



The last man who used the word " clarence " in Bombay must have been Norman Macleod, who asked his host — it was after tiffin — if his " clarence " was ready. This was, no doubt, a Glasgow archaism or slip of the tongue and relic of William IV.'s days.

The rise, progress and extinction of hack buggies



would need a history by itself They were fearful instruments of torture, and for more than one generation at least

the drivers had the credit of being thieves and pick-pockets. As you sat next the driver, and were jolted against him, there cannot be a doubt that he disseminated dirt, disease and vermin.




                                                        For the victoria
                                                                      
we are indebted in a great measure to Sir Frank Souter and Mr. Weber

. Mr. Vincent, then the head of our police, took a most distinguished part in this crusade against the detestable buggy, which ceased to exist about 1881.

Several attempts vyere made by Mr. Weber to introduce the hansom,



 which were unsuccessful, and this vehicle, we think, does not now exist in Bombay.

The tramway,



which has been such an inestimable blessing to us all, began about 1874

1875-BOMBAY-MODES OF TRAVEL[1] HACKERRY CARRIAGE[2] ELEPHANTS





Glimpses of old Bombay and western India, with other papers (1900)

William Johnson and William Henderson. Knifegrinders, Bombay, ca. 1856.


train at 1895

1875--The arrival of a railway locomotive in India, 1875.



Indian Tramway constructed by His Highness the Guicowar of Baroda," from the Illustrated London News, 1863*


1853-INDIA'S FIRST TRAIN-BOMBAY TO THANA 



On April 16th, at 3:35pm,1853 the first train in India leaves Bombay for Thane










1870-BOMBAY- PAREL RAILWAY STATION - LOWER PICTURE-SHOWING DEPARTURE OF DUKE OF EDINBURGH

DUKE OF EDINBURGH 1870


Duke of Edinburgh, c 1870 (1895-29949 / 10428937 © Science and Society)

Duke of Edinburgh, c 187



                           ABOVE PICTURE:- PAREL RAILWAY STATION

1875-LOWER PICTURE SHOWS A RICH INDIAN TRAVELLING WITH ARMED GUARD IN BOMBAY


1865-SHIP 'BOMBAY' BURNING'BOMBAY'--1865 3RD VOYAGE TO NEW ZEALAND

'BOMBAY'= 900 TONS CAPT: SELLARS .FROM LONDON DEPARTED 26TH NOVEMBER 1864
TOTAL NO:OF PASSENGERS :- 390


 CATHEDRAL ---BEFORE ARRIVAL OF ELECTRICITY-SHOWS HAND PULLED MAT FAN(PUNKAH) CAN BE SEEN AS THE WHITE CLOTH OVER THE PEWS

BRITISH EMPIRE 1713 (BLUE)




Native Indian musicians from Bombay in 19th Century

[Indian+Musicians.jpg]


How Mumbai lost its animal instinct: The Times of India;Sunday, April 25, 2010,

Mumbai: In the winter of 1913, residents witnessed a jackal 




being chased by a pack of stray dogs from Charni Road Station to Marine Drive. In 1822, a tiger trotted down Malabar Hill, headed to Gowalia Tank to quench its thirst, and ran off up the hill again, its pug marks clearly visible the next morning. And on February 15, 1859, all hell broke loose when a panther was spotted prowling the lanes of Kalbadevi. It was hunted down and shot to death by the then Commissioner of Police as it fled towards the shores of Back Bay. 

While old-timers who've grown up on such city lore smile wistfully and doff their hats to a Bombay that no longer is, it's hard to imagine the plush residential areas of Marine Drive and Malabar Hill sharing space with the likes of now endangered animals like tigers, Indian wild boar, jackals and striped hyenas. Mumbai has paid a high price for the tag of financial capital of India, say historians and experts who have documented the demise of wildlife in the city. The last tiger




 is believed to have been shot in the vicinity of Vihar Lake on January 22, 1929, by a J J Sutari. 



A Tiger hunt by English men


But it's not just the tiger that has been driven to extinction in Mumbai. Jackals and hyenas, too, have been systematically hunted down over the last century. 
Anand Pendharkar, wildlife biologist and director of NGO SPROUTS, said: "There are a few rare jackal sightings mainly in mangrove areas near Lokhandwala Complex in Andheri, Malad, Charkop and Gorai. And the shy civet cat


 and mongoose 


occasionally make an appearance in areas like Vikhroli and Goregaon East, but their numbers have dropped drastically." 
Striped hyenas 


managed to survive the urban onslaught till as late as the 1990s. "We believe that the last two hyenas of Mumbai were shot dead near Film City in Goregaon in the '90s," said Sunjoy Monga, author and naturalist.

The leopard 
Photo: A leopard rests in a treetop perch


has managed to survive Mumbai's economic boom. The much-maligned cat scratches out a living, its habitat restricted to the green patches at the Sanjay Gandhi National Park and Aarey Milk Colony. 



                                Mumbai’s best-kept secret

Mirror reporters discover 18th century tunnel from St George’s Hospital that has exits at Gateway, Churchgate and Blue Gate
Lata Mishra and Sudhir Suryawanshi
 Freakin' Awesome! Freakin' Awesome! Freakin' Awesome! Freakin' Awesome! Freakin' Awesome!
Posted On Friday, June 18, 2010 at 04:31:42 AM
This is possibly Mumbai’s best-kept secret and most certainly the shortest shortcut to reach the Gateway, Churchgate or the Blue Gate from St George’s Hospital on P D’mello Road.

Two Mumbai Mirror reporters on Thursday discovered an over 240-year-old tunnel tucked under the St George’s Hospital.

The 1.5 km tunnel, now full of muck and sea water, starts under Ward 5 of the hospital and has exits at the Gateway, the Blue Gate and Churchgate.


1. PWD workers stand next to the trap door leading to the tunnel at St George’s Hospital at ward no 5

With its lone entrance, covered by a wooden hatch now, plonked right in the middle of the Swine Flu ward, the tunnel for many years has been a source of great curiosity and many unfounded stories in the hospital.

The wooden hatch on Thursday was raised and a ladder lowered into the tunnel to let the two reporters explore its depths. But they found that they could not go beyond a few metres.

The tunnel’s three arms lay blocked with brick-and-mud walls. There was knee deep water in the tunnel and hospital staff said the level would rise as monsoon progresses.


2. Mumbai Mirror reporter Sudhir Suryawanshi uses a ladder to get down to the 1.5-km long tunnel at the hospital

Historians say since the Dutch, the French and the Portuguese posed a constant threat, the Britishers built a network of tunnels starting from St George’s Fort, present day’s St George’s Hospital.

These tunnels were used to ferry injured soldiers, arms and ammunitions and also as escape routes in event of an attack.

Urban historian Sharada Dwivedi said she had come across the St George’s Hospital tunnel during her research on Mumbai’s past. “There are many tunnels from the British period which run through the Fort area.


St George’s Hospital tunnel, the exit points of which are Churchgate, Gateway and Blue Gate
The St George’s hospital tunnel may be connected to Apollo Bunder (Gateway of India), Churchgate and Blue Gate. These secret passageways tell us a lot about our past and they need to be protected and preserved,” she said.

The tunnel has tiny skylights that also let some fresh air in, not enough though. The tunnel smells of rotten flesh, enough to make anybody sick in a matter of minutes.

Former superintendent of St George’s Hospital, Dr K N Varade, said he got the tunnel door opened once during his tenure.

“The wooden plank covering the tunnel’s opening was damaged. I got it fixed. We did not talk about the tunnel because we didn’t want the Archaeological Survey of India to step in and take over this part of the hospital,” he said.


3. The 18th century tunnel below the ward has law arched ceilings with barely enough room for an adult to stand erect
4. One of the exits of the tunnel which is now partially submerged under sea water and muck leads to St George’s Fort that next to Blue Gate
5. The ventilators that let light and fresh air to the tunnel which was used for ferrying injured soldiers and ammunition



THE  TUNNEL SHOULD BE PROPERLY MAPPED OUT TO PREVENT:_
[1] FUTURE CAVE INS
[2]DANGER TO BUILDINGS OLD AND NEW AND ITS PILINGS 
[3] TO PREVENT IT BEING USED BY DRUG ADDICTS,CRIMINALS,TERRORISTS,NAXALS ETC ETC

[4]
DUE TO RISING TEMPERATURES AND RISING SEA LEVELS ;THESE TUNNELS WILL BE A DANGER WHEN SEA WATER RUSHES IN DUE TO HIGH TIDES   

1854--ballooning as a sport in Bombay-(middle picture bottom row)



1887 Queen'S Jubilee Bombay



ROAD SIDE MONEY CHANGER --BOMBAY--1895



                                    KARNALA FORT BOMBAY

Karnala fort(also called Funnel Hill[1]) is a hill fort in Raigad district about 10 km from Panvel city. Currently it is a protected place lying within the Karnala Bird Sanctuary

Its exact date of formation is not known but likely it predates 1400 CE as under the Devagiri Yadavs(1248- 1318) and under theTughlaq rulers(1318-1347), Karnala was the capital of the north Konkan districts of their respective empires. It later fell under the command of the Gujarat Sultanate but in 1540 was taken over by Nizam Shah of Ahmednagar. The Gujarat sultans then requested the help of the Dom Francisco de Menenzes the commanding officer of the Portuguese at Bassien(modern day Vasai) to win it back. He ordered 500 of his solidiers to Karnala fort and they were able to capture it. The fort was left in charge of the Gujarat Sultanate but with Portuguese garrisons.
The loss of Karnala enraged the Nizam Shah and he took back the fort and the surrounding countryside by sending 5,000 of his men. The Gujarat sultans fled to Vasai in panic and gave up any claims of the fort to the Portuguese. In the subsequent battle between the Nizam Shah and the Portuguese, the latter were victorious in repulsing further attacks of the Nizam Shahi army and the fort remained with the Portuguese. However the Portuguese Viceroy determined that the forts of Sangli and Karnala were of little value to them and decided to give them to the Nizam Shah for an annual payment of Rs. 17,500(or 5,000 gold pardoas) to further their friendship 
Shivaji conquered it from the Portuguese in 1670 by building breastworks as he advanced After his death in 1680 it was taken over by Aurangzeb. After this the Mughals occupied it for some time after which it in 1740 with the rise of the Peshwas of Pune it went to them. It remained under the command of killedar(garrison commander) Anantrao until a colonel Prother won the fort and established the rule of the British East India Company there in 1818.

ENTRY GATE TO KARNALA FORT BOMBAY

KARNALA FORT WALLS


Yash.jpg

FORT ARNALA -SEA FORT -NEAR VIRAR-BOMBAY


Arnala Fort is built on a small island of the port town of Arnala, located around 8 miles north of Vasai, Maharastra, India . Being an island fort, it is also called Jaldurg or Janjire-Arnala. The Portuguese, who owned this fort ,rebuilt and gave it the name Ilha das vacas.

HISTORY

In 1516, a local chieftain in Gujarat, Sultan Mahmud Begda originally constructed the fort on the island, strategically located at the mouth of the Vaitarna river. In the 1530s, the Portuguese had established their operations in the coastal area headquartered at Fort Bassein and soon gained control of the island. The Portuguese captain of Bassein donated the island to a Portuguese nobleman who tore down the old fort and began construction of 700x700 foot fort. Though fort was never completed by the nobleman, it remained under Portuguese control for 2 centuries, who used it to control shipping and navigation along the northern Konkan coast.
During the late 1600s and early 1700s, after a long struggle with the Mughal Empire, the Maratha Confederacy came to dominate present day Maharastra. In 1737 the then Peshwa Baji Rao I sent his brother, Chimaji Appa, to take the Bassein Fort from the Portuguese. After winning the Battle of Vasai, his general, Shankarji Pant, persuaded Chimaji to launch an assault on Fort Arnala, for its strategic importance to the Maratha navy in assaulting Portuguese interests. Their first assault, coordinated with a Maratha naval force commanded by Manaji Agre, was routed by a superior Portuguese naval force. A second assault on the fort on March 28, 1737, caught the Portuguese by surprise and forced them to abandon the fort. The victory was commemorated by a plaque installed on the northern wall of the fort and is still visible today. Marathas then rebuilt the fort, constructing three bastions Bahirav, Bhavani and Bava.
The Marathas controlled the fort until 1817 when, during the third British-Maratha war, despite successfully defending the fort, they were forced to surrender the fort to the British due to their superior naval power. The Arnala and Bassien forts were returned to the Marathas by the British in the treaty of Salabai, but the forts again changed hands under the treaty of Pune. Today the fort is in a state of disrepair
ARNALA ISLAND AND FORT NORTH BOMBAY






Aquatint published by R. Cribb in 1803 and part of King George III's Topographical Collection, with a view from above of the seven islands which initially made up the settlement of Bombay (now Mumbai), together with Salsette Island. The islands, located in the Arabian sea on the west coast of India, originally contained small fishing villages of the Koli community. The Sultans of Gujarat ceded the site to the Portuguese in 1534 and they established a trading post. Bombay was passed to the English Crown in 1661 as part of the dowry when Charles II married Catherine of Braganza. At first the settlement appeared unfavourable, with low lying marshes, a hot climate and heavy monsoon rains, but its natural harbour and strategic location led the English to embark on a programme of developing it

Tower of Silence, Bombay


              ABOVE:-PARSI TOWER OF SILENCE
PHOTO SHOWS
CHURCH GATE STREET OF BOMBAY FORT 
[INSIDE VIEW]  THE CHURCH GATE ALSO SEEN IN THE DISTANCE.
THE SECOND SHOP FROM CORNER IS 'BOMBAY TIMES1859: Bombay Standard and Chronicle of Western India merges into The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce to form Bombay Times & Standard --NOW KNOWN AS TIMES OF INDIA NEWSPAPER'[A PALANQUIN IS PARKED IN FRONT OF THE OFFICE ,ALSO A BRIDLED HORSE













BOMBAY AND THE HISTORY OF INDIAN FLAG:-



India’s flag is a tricolor standard, with bands of saffron, white, and dark green. The saffron represents courage, sacrifice, patriotism, and renunciation. It is also the color of the Hindu people. The green stands for faith, fertility and the land; it is the color of the Islam religion. The white is in the center, symbolizing the hope for unity and peace. In the center of the white band is a blue wheel with 24 spokes. This is the Ashoka Chakra (or “Wheel of Law”). The Chakra represents the continuing progress of the nation and the importance of justice in life. It also appears on the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka “

Madame Bhikaiji Cama (1861-1936) our radical firebrand, was exiled from India and Britain and lived in France. Bhikaiji was a tireless propagandist for Indian Independence

Called the ‘Saptarishi Flag’, this was hoisted in Stuttgart at the International Socialist Congress held on August 22, 1907
Indian_Flag_2.jpg
Associated with the names of Dr. Annie Besant and Lokmanya Tilak, this flag was hoisted at the Congress session in Calcutta during the ‘Home Rule Movement’. 
Indian_Flag_3.jpg
In the year 1921, a young man from Andhra presented this flag to Gandhiji for approval. It was only after Gandhiji’s suggestion that the white strip and the charkha were added. 

The flag that was first hoisted on August 7, 1906, at the Parsee Bagan Square in Calcutta.
Indian_Flag_1.jpg

1913The Ghadar Party Flag

The Ghadar Party flag was also used in the United States as a symbol for India for a short period of time.In August 1913, Southasian farmworkers and students (primarily Punjabi migrants) gathered in Stockton, California, to form the Ghadar Party. They were angry at British imperialism, but also frustrated with the Indian National Congress. ‘Freedom will not come through supplication,’ their poets sang. ‘Political power will not come by appeal/ Don’t offer cowardly petitions/ Lift up the sword, they will not remain/ What have your petitions wrought?/ Brutal foreigners have plundered our homeland.’ The sentiment of complete independence thus came almost two decades before the Congress took it to heart. ‘Nation after nation are ready to rise up,’ the Ghadar Party’s newspaper proclaimed in July 1914. ‘Your voice has reached China, Japan, Manila, Sumatra, Fiji, Java, Singapore, Egypt, Paris, South Africa, South America, East Africa and Panama.’
IN 1917…..
The Home Rule Bal Ganga Dhar Tilak adopted a new flag in 1917. The flag had union jack at the top, near hoist. The rest of the flag contains five red and four green strips.
It had seven stars on it in the shape of “Saptarishi” Constellation which is sacred one for Hindus. It also had a crescent moon, star at the top fly end. This flag didn’t become popular in masses.


IN 1921…..As Mahatma Gandhi communities of India to be represented in the flag of the nation, so a new flag was designed. At the top was white then green and at the bottom was red color. In this flag white symbolized minority communities of India, green was for Muslims and the red one was for Hindu and Sikh communities. The “Charkha” was drawn across all the bands symbolizing the unification of these communities.IN 1931……Some people were not at all happy with the communal interpretation of the flag. Keeping all this in a view a new flag was designed. This color signified combined spirit of Hindu yogis as well as Muslim dervish. In another flag by Pingali Venkayya had three color. Saffron was at the top Followed by white in the middle and green being the lowermost. The “Charkha” was at the center of white color. This flag was passed at the meeting of Congress Committee in 1931 and was adopted as the official flag of the Committee.


1942 1945[subhas chandra bose with Indian soldiers of 'Azad Hind'-IN SINGAPORE]







IN 1947…..

When India got independence, a committee headed by Rajinder Prasad was formed to discuss the National Flag of India and they decided to adopt the flag of Indian National Congress with suitable modifications as the flag of India. As a result the flag of 1931 was adopted as Indian flag but “Charkha” in the middle was replaced by “Chakra” (wheel) and hence our national Flag came into being.


The Indian National Flag came into being in its present form at the meeting of Constitutional Assembly on 22nd July 1947.

Pandit Nehru introduced the Indian National Flag in the Constituent Assembly on 22nd

 July 1947, he said,  “ … this flag that I have the honour to present you is not, I hope and trust, a flag of the dominion over anybody, but a flag of freedom not only for ourselves, but a symbol of freedom for all people who may see it. And wherever it may go – and I hope it will go far- not only where Indians dwell as our ambassadors and ministers but across the far seas where it may be carried by the Indian ships, wherever it may go, it will bring a message of  comradeship, a message that India wants to be friend with every country of the world and India wants to help any people who seek freedom. That hope will be the message of this flag everywhere…”.
   BRITISH AND EAST INDIA FLAG 1660 TO 1947

[Red Ensign was established as the proper colours for the British ships by a proclamation in 1674. The Merchant Shipping Act of 1894 brought up to date the law concerning the wearing of ensigns by British ships. Prior to this many ensigns of various designs were in use.]




 New Purna Swaraj (Total Independence) Flag: 1931-1947

The new Purna Swaraj Flag immediately acquired irresistible power, it betokened fearlessness and faith amongst the Freedom fighters in their ultimate victory in gaining Independence in 1947.

 The Patriotic cover shows the effigy of Mahatma Gandhiflanked by the new Tricolour flags and the legend ‘Vande Mataram’ in Tamil.The envelope is chopped with Japanese censored mark and was postally carried in Malaya then under Japanese occupation during World War II (Postage stamps were duly affixed at the back) 
  “Kumaran's Hand Holding the Flag” Postmark fromTirupur issued on August 15, 1997 commemorating the 50th. Anniversary. of Independence  
  Kodi Kaatha Kumaran (1904 - 1932)
Kumaran - The protector of the Flag, on January 10, 1932, Kodi Kaatha Kumaran, a brave young mill-hand of Tirupur, Madras (now Tamil Nadu) was leading a labour resistance procession holding the tricolour in his hand, when police attacked Kumaran brutally he exhibited an exemplary act of defiance against the British violence by holding the Tricolourup while raising the freedom cry ‘Vande Matarm’. Kumaran succumbed to his  injuries next day. 

 Sanjiva Nijalingappa actively participated and courted arrest in the 'Flag Satyagraha' organised by the Mysore Congress in April 1938 at Shivapura near Maddur, Karnataka. 
 On August 8, 1942 Mahatma Gandhi gave the historic call “Quit India” in Bombay and raised the slogan “Do or Die” for the cause. 
 On August 9, following the arrest of most of the prominent leaders, Aruna Asaf Ali came forward and hoisted the National Flag at Gowalia Tank Maidan (Renamed, August Kranti Maidan) in Bombay (now Mumbai).
 Matangini Hazra was an active participant of the Quit India Movement at the age of 73. On 29th. Sept, 1942 while she was leading a procession in Tamluk, Bengal and advanced with the Tricolour flag in her hands, a shower of bullets from the police felled her, but the flag was still flying in her hands unsullied. 
 The August Kranti at Ballia,under the leadership of Chittu Pandey was an inspiring chapter of the “Quit India” Movement 
 The bronze sculpture (by D. P. Roychoudhury) depicts theseven students who lost their lives while attempting to hoist the flag atop old Patna Secretariat building during Quit India Movement. The seven students, who's names are engraved on Martyrs’ Memorial, Patna.;* Umakant Prasad Sinha - Ram Mohan Roy Seminary, class IX * Ramanand Singh - Ram Mohan Roy Seminary, class IX * Satish Prasad Jha - Patna Collegiate School, class X * Jalpati Kumar - Bihar National College, 2nd year * Devipada Choudhry - Miller High English School, class IX * Rajendra Singh - Patna High English School, matric class * Ramgovind Singh - Punpun High English School, matric class.

1931-1947

 Some more interesting items onSwaraj flag (1921-1931)(from the collection ofSri G. Biswas of Kolkata)


The Flag Committee -1931 headed by Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramyya after going through various suggestions as received from various sources came up with an entirely new design, allSaffron Flag charged with a brown Charkha at 
the top left corner (canton) of the flag. The Flag design recommended by the Flag Committee failed to create any consensus amongst the Congress members in general and Muslims members in particular. The proposed flag was summarily rejected by the Congress Working Committee for the reason that the flag design interfered too much with the flag. As a result the all Saffron Flag never saw the light of day.  




HISTORY OF CURRENCY NOTES IN INDIA ; AND THE Bank of Bombay and later under R.B.I[RESERVE BANK OF INDIA]

BANK OF BOMBAY Banknotes, 1846-66 ISSUES
KING GEORGE 6TH OF ENGLAND ;THE EMPEROR OF INDIA 





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       Dr Kitchener's Curry Powder--1800's


East India Company 1

William Kitchiner

Detail of a Portrait
Born1775
England
Died1827 (aged 51–52)
NationalityEngland
Known forCook's Oracle, creator of Wow-Wow sauce
I was leafing through a paperback copy of the original 1861 edition of Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management (Oxford World's Classics) and came across her recipe for Indian Curry-Powder, founded on Dr Kitchener's Recipe.  William Kitchiner (1775?-1827) was the author of the Apicus Redivivus, The Cook's Oracle, first published in 1817.
I'm quite fond of these historic Anglo-Indian curry powders; the sort of thing we chuck into stews and then have the nerve to call "curry".  Here's my version of Dr Kitchener's curry powder, as described by Mrs Beeton.  I've slightly adapted it for the modern kitchen and added cardamom and black pepper.
Add the following ingredients to a mixing bowl: two teaspoons of powdered turmeric, two teaspoons ofpowdered cinammon,  two teaspoons of powdered ginger, two teaspoons of powdered fenugreek, a dash of cayenne pepper and a good grinding of black pepper.  Mix them up so they form a powder.
In a pestle and mortar, grind up the following ingredients until they form a fine powder: two teaspoons of coriander seeds, two teaspoons ofmustard seeds, and a few cardamom pods. (You will have to discard the cardamom's outer shells).  I love grinding up spices: all those lovely, aromatic smells. When you reckon the ingredients are ready, mix them in with the other spices.  
Keep the finished curry powder in an air-tight container. It should keep reasonably well. Obviously, if you want to make more of the stuff, you will need to increase the quantities. Half the fun of this sort of thing is to play around with the proportions, to suit your own tastes. Secret recipes and all that.

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