Monday, April 11, 2011

yearly mails to weekly mails 19 th century-[6-]Glimpses of old Bombay and western India, with other papers (1900)










[PART 10]



Glimpses of old Bombay and western India, with other papers (1900)


In 1841

the steamer generally took three hours from the time she was signalled until she was anchored, and three hours more were required to sort the letters.

The transport of the mails before this throughout India was generally done by dak-runners, who ran three koss, or six miles, with the mail bags, and had often to cross swollen rivers.
In 1810 the mail to the north was robbed by a gang of persons on Parell road.
parel government house
From 1816 to 1821 the Calcutta dak to Bombay, 1,300 miles, took eighteen and a half days, which was reduced in 1824 to twelve days seven and a half hours, and this was thought extraordinarily quick.
The arrival of the Calcutta mail was always a source of general interest, for, from the condition in which the letters arrived, was judged what the weather was in the interior.

The H.M.S. Calcutta 
Absolutely,, this was all people then had in place of our elaborate daily telegraphic weather reports.

The corre- spondence with Calcutta was limited.
 In 1826 the mail was lost between Calcutta and Nagpore. It consisted of only fortyfive letters.

In 1833 the Surat dak-tapal was drowned,
and in 1850 a mail gharry in Salsette was bowled over by a tiger,

Bombay Photo Images[ Mumbai]: BOMBAY TO CALCUTTA 1825.1,400 miles in 25  DAYS, IN A PALANQUIN ,AMONG TIGERS AND DACOITS [.travelogue of 1845]1500 × 1187Bombay Photo Images[ Mumbai]

 and nobody was hurt
A gharry in India, 1860s | Indian history, Vintage india, History


A gharry in India, 1860s |

Stamp: Dawk Gharry, 1842 (India) (India '89 International Stamp Exhibition  (5th Issue)) Mi:IN 1204,Yt:IN 1009B,Sg:IN 1359
Stamp: Dawk Gharry, 1842 (India) (India ... · In stock

And on one occasion, before 1843, her Majesty's mails were lost in a buggalow eighty miles from Aden, but were recovered, though much saturated.
                                                              Buggalow ship of aden

In 1853 the postage on a daily paper for a moderate distance in India was Rs. 50 per annum. In 1859 first-class fare, Southampton to London, was reduced from £95 to £85
Egypt in the Golden Age of Travel | History, stories and a book to promote  | Page 8 

. People who came in the vans or omnibuses from Cairo to Suez in the " fifties " did not soon forget it. They were well horsed, but the road was a caution — mounds of sand and gravel.
We had a bi-monthly mail in 1845. In 1860, July 6th, fortnightly mails commenced.
Click to see the entire image and source.
In 1868, March 23rd, " we are now hourly expecting our first weekly mail."

                                             Carriages. We will now speak of carriages.

Pin by Miroslav Špaldoň on carretas in 2020 | Carriage driving, Horse drawn  wagon, Carriages

Carriages Cloud Wallpaper by Milola Design1350 × 1800

Carriage vintage transport with old wheels Vector Image

The Governor had a carriage, at an early time, say, in Grose's period, 1760,
A barouche, a carriage of German origin which was introduced into England in the 1760s

A coach and six

                                                                  bullock gharries
were quite fashionable in the end of last century, and Mr. Vaupell of the High Court, until he died in 1852, used to delight in driving a pair of fast-trotting oxen from Bandora to the Fort daily.

In Qui Hi's last journey to Padre Burrough's Godown (1814), the tattered and lugubrious hearse is depicted as drawn by oxen. But carriages soon began to prevail.

 In 1821 Mr. Mitchell advertises that he will not do any business in coach-building except for ready-money, so the demand had exceeded the supply on credit.


The Modern Idol Jaggernaut

In 1824 Mr. Lewis Collett advertises that he will continue the coach- making business of Mr. John Mitchell, and soon Collett's equipages were in the language of the day " all the go.

" For business locomotion the palky was everywhere,

 but the last specimen in Bombay will soon, like the sedan chairs of our great-grandmothers, be relegated to the museum of antiquities.
1 am sure the Esplanade was never so crowded with fashionable equipages as it was in the season of 1865.

It was a perfect carnival. Steamers 

were then coming with sometimes a million sterling of bar silver, an instalment of the eighty millions of profits which were said to have been
made by Bombay traders during the American cotton famine, and the display of wealth did not seem out of proportion to the means of that period of exaltation.

These were the days when bungalows were wanted at Rs. 500, and Altamont was let at Rs. 1,000 a month.

It would be impossible in a sketch like this to chronicle even the names that were borne by the vehicles of this century, and which prevailed at different periods.

In the few years which succeeded 1818 we read of chariots,

Bengal-built dennets, coaches,




Regency History: Curricles, gigs and phaetons in the Regency

Curricles, gigs and phaetons in the Regency

Curricles, gigs and phaetons in the Regency

Ladies in a phaeton  from Gallery of Fashion by Nikolaus von Heideloff (1794)
Ladies in a phaeton from Gallery of Fashion
by Nikolaus von Heideloff (1794)
It is impossible to write a novel set in the late Georgian and Regency periods without knowing something about carriages. Otherwise you might send your hero driving around Hyde Park in the Georgian equivalent to a Ford Galaxy when you really meant him to be driving a Ferrari!

I have already blogged about travelling chariots here: Travelling chariots. This post looks at that all-important question: what type of carriage would a fashionable gentleman be driving around Hyde Park in 1810 (when the novel I am working on is set)? 

I had other questions too. What was the difference between a curricle and a phaeton? And between a curricle and a gig? Were these terms hard and fast, or were some of them used interchangeably? Would a fashionable Regency gentleman have been more likely to drive a curricle, a gig or a phaeton?

I have found the second volume of William Felton’s A Treatise on Carriages (1796) particularly good at helping me to differentiate between the vehicles in my mind – but his work also confirms that there is a lot of overlap. 

A Dasher! Or the Road to Ruin in the West (5/11/1799)  by T Rowlandson after GM Woodward  published by R Ackermann
A Dasher! Or the Road to Ruin in the West (5/11/1799)
by T Rowlandson after GM Woodward published by R Ackermann
What was the difference between a curricle and a phaeton?

The most obvious difference between these vehicles was the number of wheels. Gigs, curricles, chaises, whiskeys and chairs all had two wheels whilst phaetons had four.

Beyond this, the differences were the number of horses that usually pulled them, and the size and design of the vehicle.


Let’s start with the phaeton – a light, owner-driven carriage with four wheels.

Felton wrote:
Phaetons, for some years, have deservedly been regarded as the most pleasant sort of carriage in use, as they contribute, more than any other, to health, amusement, and fashion, with the superior advantage of lightness, over every other sort of four-wheeled carriages, and are much safer, and more easy to ride in, than those of two wheels.1
There were two main designs – perch and crane-neck – and these came in a variety of sizes and designs, some high off the ground and some low. A phaeton could be driven by one horse, a pair of horses, or according to some sources, four horses. If pulled by a pair, these might be driven in tandem, with one horse behind the other, as opposed to next to each other as in a normal pair. Some phaetons were drawn by ponies rather than horses.

Felton compared the perch phaeton to the crane-neck:
The perch carriage is of the most simple construction, and considerably lighter than the crane-neck; and as the width of the streets in the metropolis gives every advantage to their use in turning, they are the most general. The crane-neck carriage has much the superiority for convenience and elegance, and every grand or state equipage is this way built; but the weight of the cranes, and the additional strength of materials necessary for their support, make them considerably heavier that the others; but their ease and safety in turning in narrow confined places, and also their strength, render them indispensably necessary for foreign countries.2
Perch high phaeton

Perch high phaeton from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
Perch high phaeton from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
Felton referred to a perch high phaeton rather than a high perch phaeton which is the term I have heard before. This design was where the wheels were very large, with the front wheel as much as five feet off the ground and the rear wheel even higher at eight feet. The body of the carriage sat right over the axle, above the front wheel. Both the equipage and the person who drove it seem to have gained the nickname high-flyer.

In Fanny Burney’s Evelina, Lord Orville drives a phaeton:
Lord Orville drove very slow, and so cautiously, that, notwithstanding the height of the phaeton, fear would have been ridiculous.3
Later, Evelina writes about a visit to Bath:
As I had never had an opportunity of seeing Bath, a party was formed last night for showing me that celebrated city; and this morning, after breakfast, we set out in three phaetons. Lady Louisa and Mrs Beaumont with Lord Merton; Mr Coverley, Mr Lovel, and Mrs Selwyn; and myself with Lord Orville.4
This suggests that some phaetons could comfortably accommodate three people.

In Fanny Burney’s Camilla, Mrs Arlbery drives a phaeton:
'Dear! if there is not Mrs Arlbery in a beautiful high phaeton!'5
Crane-neck phaeton

Crane-neck phaeton from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
Crane-neck phaeton from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
Middle-sized phaeton

Felton wrote:
Although there are no established rules for the size of phaetons, yet a proportion should be observed according to the size of the horses, whether fifteen, fourteen, or thirteen hands high; as the appearance of both ought to be conformable to each other, therefore a middling-sized phaeton, to the middling, or Galloway, sized horses, suits best; many persons are very partial to this size of equipage, being less formidable in the appearance than the high, and more elegant than the low, phaeton; from the moderate size of them, they are, in general, called ladies’ phaetons, are best adapted for their amusement.6
The seat is not set so high or far forward in this design.

Middle-sized perch phaeton

Middle-sized perch phaeton from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
Middle-sized perch phaeton from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
Crane-neck middle-sized phaeton

Crane-neck middle-sized phaeton  from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
Crane-neck middle-sized phaeton
from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
One-horse phaeton

Poney or one-horse phaeton (perch)

Poney or one-horse phaeton  from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
Poney or one-horse phaeton
from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
Felton wrote:
A pair of ponies from twelve to thirteen hands high are about equal for draught with a horse of fifteen, and a phaeton of the same weight is equally adapted for either. He continued: Poney phaetons are pretty equipages, and are best adapted for parks only; for, by being so low, the passengers are much annoyed by the dust, if used on the turnpike roads; and one-horse phaetons, where one horse only is kept, are much to be preferred to any two-wheeled carriage for safety and ease, but are heavier in draught; to allow for that, it ought to be built as light as possible to be safe with.7
In Pride and Prejudice, Miss de Bourgh drives a low phaeton driven by a pair of ponies:
Miss de Bourgh … is perfectly amiable, and often condescends to drive by my humble abode in her little phaeton and ponies.8
Mrs Gardiner later suggests to Elizabeth that this is her preferred way of travelling around Pemberley:
A low phaeton, with a nice little pair of ponies, would be the very thing.9
Light one-horse or poney Berlin phaeton (crane-neck)

Light one-horse or poney Berlin phaeton  from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
Light one-horse or poney Berlin phaeton
from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
Felton wrote:
For a safe, light , simple, and cheap, four-wheeled phaeton, the Berlin is recommended in preference to any: it is a crane-neck carriage, with the body fixed thereon, at such a distance between the bearings as to be perfectly safe.10
George IV driving his low phaeton in Windsor Park  from Memoirs of George IV by R Huish (1830)
George IV driving his low phaeton in Windsor Park
from Memoirs of George IV by R Huish (1830)

In his book, Carriages and Coaches, Straus wrote that a sociable was ‘merely a phaeton with a double or treble body.’11

Felton wrote that the sociable was so-called
… from the number of persons it is meant to carry at one time. They are intended for the pleasure of gentlemen to use in parks, or on little excursions with their families: they are also peculiarly convenient for the conveying of servants from one residence to another.12
Sociable  from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
Two-wheeled carriages

According to Felton, a two-wheeled carriage designed to be drawn by two horses abreast was called a curricle; if designed for one horse, it was called a chaise.

Straus referred to gigs, curricles and chaises in a slightly different way:
As a general rule it may be taken that when a gig had two horses it was called a curricle, and when there was only one, a chaise.13
Sir Gregory Gig from print by Bunbury (1782)   from Carriages and Coaches by R Straus (1912)
Sir Gregory Gig from print by Bunbury (1782)
from Carriages and Coaches by R Straus (1912)
Speaking of two-wheeled carriages, Felton wrote:
For lightness and simplicity two-wheeled carriages are preferable, but are less to be depended on for safety; the smallness of their price, and the difference of expence in the imposed duty, are the principal reasons for their being so generally used. They are not so pleasant to ride in as phaetons, as the motion of the carriage frequently gives uneasiness to the passengers. Not having the advantage of the fore wheels, they are neither so safe in their bearings, nor so easy to turn about with, and are therefore inconvenient where the turnings are narrow.14

A curricle was a light, owner-driven carriage with two wheels designed to be drawn by two horses abreast. There was room only for the driver and a single passenger, and the most fashionable curricles were pulled by a carefully matched pair of horses.

Felton wrote:
Curricles were ancient carriages, but are lately revived with considerable improvements; and none are so much regarded for fashion as these are by those who are partial to drive their own horses; they are certainly a superior kind of two-wheeled carriage, and from their novelty, and being generally used by persons of eminence, are, on that account, preferred as a more genteel kind of carriage than phaetons; though not possessing any advantage to be compared with them, except in lightness, wherein they excel every other, having so great a power to so small a draught. They are built much stronger and heavier than what is necessary for one-horse chaises, and the larger they are the better they look, if not to an extreme.15
The curricle from The story of the London parks by J Larwood (1874)
The curricle from The story
of the London parks
by J Larwood (1874)
A fixed or proper curricle

Fixed or proper curricle  from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
Fixed or proper curricle from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
According to Felton:
The proprietors of this sort of carriage are in general persons of high repute for fashion, and who are, continually, of themselves, inventing some improvements, the variety of which would be too tedious to relate.16
In Hannah More’s Coelebs in Search of a Wife, the hero, Charles, invites Celia to ride in his new curricle. She impulsively invites her sister to join them:
I am sure the curricle will hold us all nicely; for I am very little, and Lucilla is not very big.17
Catherine Morland is invited to ride in Henry Tilney’s curricle on the way to Northanger Abbey: 
In the course of a few minutes, she found herself with Henry in the curricle, as happy a being as ever existed. A very short trial convinced her that a curricle was the prettiest equipage in the world; the chaise and four wheeled off with some grandeur, to be sure, but it was a heavy and troublesome business, and she could not easily forget its having stopped two hours at Petty France. Half the time would have been enough for the curricle, and so nimbly were the light horses disposed to move, that, had not the general chosen to have his own carriage lead the way, they could have passed it with ease in half a minute.18
Catherine rides in Mr Tilney's curricle  from Northanger Abbey by Jane Austen  in The novels and letters of Jane Austen  ed RB Johnson (1906)
Catherine rides in Mr Tilney's curricle
from Northanger Abbey by Jane Austen
in The novels and letters of Jane Austen
ed RB Johnson (1906)
In Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy drives his sister to meet Elizabeth Bennet in his curricle:
They had been walking about the place with some of their new friends, and were just returning to the inn to dress themselves for dining with the same family, when the sound of a carriage drew them to a window, and they saw a gentleman and a lady in a curricle driving up the street. Elizabeth immediately recognizing the livery, guessed what it meant, and imparted no small degree of her surprise to her relations by acquainting them with the honour which she expected.19
In Sense and Sensibility, the dashing Mr Willoughby drives a curricle:
On their return from the park they found Willoughby's curricle and servant in waiting at the cottage, and Mrs Dashwood was convinced that her conjecture had been just.20
In Mansfield Park, the rich and would-be fashionable Mr Rushworth owns a curricle:
How would Mr. Crawford like, in what manner would he choose, to take a survey of the grounds? Mr. Rushworth mentioned his curricle. Mr. Crawford suggested the greater desirableness of some carriage which might convey more than two.21
In Persuasion, both Charles Musgrove and Mr Elliot own curricles:
They had nearly done breakfast, when the sound of a carriage, (almost the first they had heard since entering Lyme) drew half the party to the window. It was a gentleman's carriage, a curricle, but only coming round from the stable-yard to the front door; somebody must be going away. It was driven by a servant in mourning.

The word curricle made Charles Musgrove jump up that he might compare it with his own; the servant in mourning roused Anne's curiosity, and the whole six were collected to look, by the time the owner of the curricle was to be seen issuing from the door amidst the bows and civilities of the household, and taking his seat, to drive off.22
A changeable curricle, or curricle gig

This was a curricle that was designed so it could be used, if necessity required it, by a single horse. This could prove useful when travelling when a horse went lame.

Changeable curricle or curricle gig  from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
Changeable curricle or curricle gig
from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)

A hooded gig in the National Trust Carriage Museum at Arlington Court
A hooded gig in the National Trust Carriage Museum at Arlington Court
A gig was a light, two-wheeled carriage, driven by its owner, that was normally drawn by a single horse. It only had room for the driver and a single passenger though usually there was a small seat for the groom behind the body. Some gigs had foldable heads (hoods) for protection from the elements. These had side windows to enable the driver to have some peripheral vision when it was up. A gig could also be called a one-horse chaise.

Felton wrote:
Gigs are one-horse chaises, of various patterns, devised according to the fancy of the occupier; but, more generally, means those that hang by braces from the springs; the mode of hanging is what principally constitutes the name of Gig, which is only a one-horse chaise of the most fashionable make; curricles being now the most fashionable sort of two-wheeled carriages, it is usual, in building a Gig, to imitate them, particularly in the mode of hanging.23
Chair back gig from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
Chair back gig from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
In Northanger Abbey, Mr Thorpe has a one-horse gig rather than a curricle:
They were prevented crossing by the approach of a gig, driven along on bad pavement by a most knowing-looking coachman with all the vehemence that could most fitly endanger the lives of himself, his companion, and his horse. 

“Oh, these odious gigs!” said Isabella, looking up. “How I detest them.” But this detestation, though so just, was of short duration, for she looked again and exclaimed, “Delightful! Mr. Morland and my brother!”

“Good heaven! 'Tis James!” was uttered at the same moment by Catherine; and, on catching the young men's eyes, the horse was immediately checked with a violence which almost threw him on his haunches, and the servant having now scampered up, the gentlemen jumped out, and the equipage was delivered to his care.24
Mr Thorpe boasts about his gig to Catherine:
What do you think of my gig, Miss Morland? A neat one, is not it? Well hung; town-built; I have not had it a month. It was built for a Christchurch man, a friend of mine, a very good sort of fellow; he ran it a few weeks, till, I believe, it was convenient to have done with it. I happened just then to be looking out for some light thing of the kind, though I had pretty well determined on a curricle too. He continued: Curricle-hung, you see; seat, trunk, sword-case, splashing-board, lamps, silver moulding, all you see complete; the iron-work as good as new, or better.25
In Pride and Prejudice, Mr Collins has a gig:
While Sir William was with them, Mr. Collins devoted his morning to driving him out in his gig, and showing him the country.26
In Persuasion, Admiral Croft has a gig:
This long meadow bordered a lane, which their footpath, at the end of it was to cross, and when the party had all reached the gate of exit, the carriage advancing in the same direction, which had been some time heard, was just coming up, and proved to be Admiral Croft's gig. He and his wife had taken their intended drive, and were returning home. Upon hearing how long a walk the young people had engaged in, they kindly offered a seat to any lady who might be particularly tired; it would save her a full mile, and they were going through Uppercross. The invitation was general, and generally declined. The Miss Musgroves were not at all tired, and Mary was either offended, by not being asked before any of the others, or what Louisa called the Elliot pride could not endure to make a third in a one-horse chaise.27
Gig curricle

In the same way that a curricle gig was designed for two horses and occasionally used with one, so a gig curricle was designed for one horse and occasionally used with two.

Gig curricle from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
Gig curricle from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)

In his glossary, Felton described a chair as:
A light chaise without pannels, for the use of parks, gardens, &c a name commonly applied to all light chaises.28
Rib chair or Yarmouth cart from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
Rib chair or Yarmouth cart from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
Jane Austen referred to her brothers James and Edward having chairs in letters to her sister Cassandra. She may have been referring specifically to a light chaise without door, quarter or back panels, but I think it was more likely she just meant a light chaise.

In a letter from Southampton dated 7 January 1807, Jane wrote:
We expected James yesterday, but he did not come; if he comes at all now, his visit will be a very short one, as he must return to-morrow, that Ajax and the chair may be sent to Winchester on Saturday.29
In a letter from Godmersham Park dated 3 November 1813, Jane wrote:
I had but just time to enjoy your letter yesterday before Edward and I set off in the chair for Canty., and I allowed him to hear the chief of it as we went along.30
In Jane Austen’s unfinished novel, The Watsons, Emma Watson is waiting for her father’s chair to fetch her after a ball:
Emma was at once astonished by finding it two o'clock, and considering that she had heard nothing of her father's chair. After this discovery, she had walked twice to the window to examine the street, and was on the point of asking leave to ring the bell and make inquiries, when the light sound of a carriage driving up to the door set her heart at ease. She stepped again to the window, but instead of the convenient though very un-smart family equipage, perceived a neat curricle.31

Half-pannel whiskey from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
Half-pannel whiskey from A Treatise on carriages by W Felton (1796)
In his glossary, Felton described a whiskey as:
A lighter sort of a one-horse chaise than usual.32
Felton explained:
Whiskies are one-horse chaises of the lightest construction, with which the horses may travel with ease and expedition, and quickly pass other carriages on the road, for which they are called Whiskies.33
It would seem from the definitions of a whiskey and a chair that there was some overlap which is why the names are sometimes used interchangeably.


Horse and buggy - Wikipedia
Horse and buggy - Wikipedia




sociables, landaulets

A landaulet or landaulette carriage is a cut-down (coupé) version of a landau horse-drawn carriage. The landaulette retains the rear half of the landau's two-part folding top.[1]

The earliest use of the word shown in the Oxford English Dictionary is in a patent of 1771, using the former spelling landawlet.[2]

A variant of the brougham called a brougham-landaulette had a top collapsible from the rear doors backward.

The name landaulette was also used for the landaulet car body style, where the passengers are covered by a removable top and the chauffeur is usually covered and separated from passengers by a division.

, britzskas


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 and clarences.

The last man who used the word " clarence " in Bombay must have been Norman Macleod, who asked his host — it was after tiffin — if his " clarence " was ready. This was, no doubt, a Glasgow archaism or slip of the tongue and relic of William IV.'s days.

The rise, progress and extinction of hack buggies

would need a history by itself They were fearful instruments of torture, and for more than one generation at least

the drivers had the credit of being thieves and pick-pockets. As you sat next the driver, and were jolted against him, there cannot be a doubt that he disseminated dirt, disease and vermin.

Panel-boot victorias
we are indebted in a great measure to Sir Frank Souter and Mr. Weber

. Mr. Vincent, then the head of our police, took a most distinguished part in this crusade against the detestable buggy, which ceased to exist about 1881.

Several attempts vyere made by Mr. Weber to introduce the hansom,

 which were unsuccessful, and this vehicle, we think, does not now exist in Bombay.

The tramway,

History Of Tram Service In Mumbai | MeMumbai
History Of Tram Service In Mumbai ...

Horse drawn tram of the Beaumaris Tramway Company.

which has been such an inestimable blessing to us all, began about 1874


hackney coach

"A Hackney Coach, 1842," from 'London in the Nineteenth Century' by Sir Walter Besant. The word 'hackney' went from describing a type of horse to describing the vehicle the horse pulled; from there, 'hack' became a term for a person who works for hire.

same photo with 3 names recently put !!!


Glimpses of old Bombay and western India, with other papers (1900)

William Johnson and William Henderson. Knifegrinders, Bombay, ca. 1856.

train at 1895

1875--The arrival of a railway locomotive in India, 1875.

File:Ndian Tramway constructed by His Highness the Guicowar of Baroda.jpg -  Wikimedia Commons

File:INdian Tramway constructed by His ...

Indian Tramway constructed by His Highness the Guicowar of Baroda," from the Illustrated London News, 1863*

Antique Print India Baroda Bullock Driven Tram & FDC

This 15 x 11 inches page is from the Illustrated London News (newspaper) of May 23, 1863.  I also have the 1987 commemorative FDC (First Day Cover) issue in my collection of this Baroda Tramway scene, see images.

Maharaja Gaekwar, Gaekwad, or Guicowar, as the British called him, were dynastic rulers of Baroda. Better known as Gaekwad Royalty today. The princely state of Baroda was one of the wealthiest in the British India era. The Maharaja constructed a tramway or minor Railway for the people of his princely state.

The tramway was bullock-driven as there were no electric trams at the time. And horses were not used because of lesser pulling power than bullocks, I suppose. Read the interesting article titled “The First Indian Tramway. Made By A Prince.” See separate scan to read the entire article.

The top side picture in the newspaper page is about a Sultan’s return from Egypt. See my posts on- Vintage Postcard The Gaekwad’s Bungalow Bombay,  and  Vintage Postcard Bombay A Prince On Elephant.

Did you know- in 1908 the Maharaja Gaekwad was the sixth richest man in the world. The Time magazine had even stated about the Maharaja wealth. 

From the collection- Vintage Photo Bombay Horse-Drawn Tram.,  Antique Print Ruins At Fatehpur Sikri.,  Vintage Photo Madras Mount Road Electric Tram.,   Raja Ravi Varma’s “Birth of Shakuntala” Oleograph of c1894


On April 16th, at 3:35pm,1853 the first train in India leaves Bombay for Thane

Conceptual Development – The Embodied Empire | SpringerLink











Native Indian musicians from Bombay in 19th Century


How Mumbai lost its animal instinct: The Times of India;Sunday, April 25, 2010,

Mumbai: In the winter of 1913, residents witnessed a jackal 

being chased by a pack of stray dogs from Charni Road Station to Marine Drive. In 1822, a tiger trotted down Malabar Hill, headed to Gowalia Tank to quench its thirst, and ran off up the hill again, its pug marks clearly visible the next morning. And on February 15, 1859, all hell broke loose when a panther was spotted prowling the lanes of Kalbadevi. It was hunted down and shot to death by the then Commissioner of Police as it fled towards the shores of Back Bay. 

While old-timers who've grown up on such city lore smile wistfully and doff their hats to a Bombay that no longer is, it's hard to imagine the plush residential areas of Marine Drive and Malabar Hill sharing space with the likes of now endangered animals like tigers, Indian wild boar, jackals and striped hyenas. Mumbai has paid a high price for the tag of financial capital of India, say historians and experts who have documented the demise of wildlife in the city. The last tiger

 is believed to have been shot in the vicinity of Vihar Lake on January 22, 1929, by a J J Sutari. 

A Tiger hunt by English men

But it's not just the tiger that has been driven to extinction in Mumbai. Jackals and hyenas, too, have been systematically hunted down over the last century. 
Anand Pendharkar, wildlife biologist and director of NGO SPROUTS, said: "There are a few rare jackal sightings mainly in mangrove areas near Lokhandwala Complex in Andheri, Malad, Charkop and Gorai. And the shy civet cat

 and mongoose 

occasionally make an appearance in areas like Vikhroli and Goregaon East, but their numbers have dropped drastically." 
Striped hyenas 

managed to survive the urban onslaught till as late as the 1990s. "We believe that the last two hyenas of Mumbai were shot dead near Film City in Goregaon in the '90s," said Sunjoy Monga, author and naturalist.

The leopard 
Photo: A leopard rests in a treetop perch

has managed to survive Mumbai's economic boom. The much-maligned cat scratches out a living, its habitat restricted to the green patches at the Sanjay Gandhi National Park and Aarey Milk Colony. 

                                Mumbai’s best-kept secret

Mirror reporters discover 18th century tunnel from St George’s Hospital that has exits at Gateway, Churchgate and Blue Gate
Lata Mishra and Sudhir Suryawanshi
 Freakin' Awesome! Freakin' Awesome! Freakin' Awesome! Freakin' Awesome! Freakin' Awesome!
Posted On Friday, June 18, 2010 at 04:31:42 AM
This is possibly Mumbai’s best-kept secret and most certainly the shortest shortcut to reach the Gateway, Churchgate or the Blue Gate from St George’s Hospital on P D’mello Road.

Two Mumbai Mirror reporters on Thursday discovered an over 240-year-old tunnel tucked under the St George’s Hospital.

The 1.5 km tunnel, now full of muck and sea water, starts under Ward 5 of the hospital and has exits at the Gateway, the Blue Gate and Churchgate.

1. PWD workers stand next to the trap door leading to the tunnel at St George’s Hospital at ward no 5

With its lone entrance, covered by a wooden hatch now, plonked right in the middle of the Swine Flu ward, the tunnel for many years has been a source of great curiosity and many unfounded stories in the hospital.

The wooden hatch on Thursday was raised and a ladder lowered into the tunnel to let the two reporters explore its depths. But they found that they could not go beyond a few metres.

The tunnel’s three arms lay blocked with brick-and-mud walls. There was knee deep water in the tunnel and hospital staff said the level would rise as monsoon progresses.

2. Mumbai Mirror reporter Sudhir Suryawanshi uses a ladder to get down to the 1.5-km long tunnel at the hospital

Historians say since the Dutch, the French and the Portuguese posed a constant threat, the Britishers built a network of tunnels starting from St George’s Fort, present day’s St George’s Hospital.

These tunnels were used to ferry injured soldiers, arms and ammunitions and also as escape routes in event of an attack.

Urban historian Sharada Dwivedi said she had come across the St George’s Hospital tunnel during her research on Mumbai’s past. “There are many tunnels from the British period which run through the Fort area.

St George’s Hospital tunnel, the exit points of which are Churchgate, Gateway and Blue Gate
The St George’s hospital tunnel may be connected to Apollo Bunder (Gateway of India), Churchgate and Blue Gate. These secret passageways tell us a lot about our past and they need to be protected and preserved,” she said.

The tunnel has tiny skylights that also let some fresh air in, not enough though. The tunnel smells of rotten flesh, enough to make anybody sick in a matter of minutes.

Former superintendent of St George’s Hospital, Dr K N Varade, said he got the tunnel door opened once during his tenure.

“The wooden plank covering the tunnel’s opening was damaged. I got it fixed. We did not talk about the tunnel because we didn’t want the Archaeological Survey of India to step in and take over this part of the hospital,” he said.

3. The 18th century tunnel below the ward has law arched ceilings with barely enough room for an adult to stand erect
4. One of the exits of the tunnel which is now partially submerged under sea water and muck leads to St George’s Fort that next to Blue Gate
5. The ventilators that let light and fresh air to the tunnel which was used for ferrying injured soldiers and ammunition



1854--ballooning as a sport in Bombay-(middle picture bottom row)

1887 Queen'S Jubilee Bombay


                                    KARNALA FORT BOMBAY

Karnala fort(also called Funnel Hill[1]) is a hill fort in Raigad district about 10 km from Panvel city. Currently it is a protected place lying within the Karnala Bird Sanctuary

Its exact date of formation is not known but likely it predates 1400 CE as under the Devagiri Yadavs(1248- 1318) and under theTughlaq rulers(1318-1347), Karnala was the capital of the north Konkan districts of their respective empires. It later fell under the command of the Gujarat Sultanate but in 1540 was taken over by Nizam Shah of Ahmednagar. The Gujarat sultans then requested the help of the Dom Francisco de Menenzes the commanding officer of the Portuguese at Bassien(modern day Vasai) to win it back. He ordered 500 of his solidiers to Karnala fort and they were able to capture it. The fort was left in charge of the Gujarat Sultanate but with Portuguese garrisons.
The loss of Karnala enraged the Nizam Shah and he took back the fort and the surrounding countryside by sending 5,000 of his men. The Gujarat sultans fled to Vasai in panic and gave up any claims of the fort to the Portuguese. In the subsequent battle between the Nizam Shah and the Portuguese, the latter were victorious in repulsing further attacks of the Nizam Shahi army and the fort remained with the Portuguese. However the Portuguese Viceroy determined that the forts of Sangli and Karnala were of little value to them and decided to give them to the Nizam Shah for an annual payment of Rs. 17,500(or 5,000 gold pardoas) to further their friendship 
Shivaji conquered it from the Portuguese in 1670 by building breastworks as he advanced After his death in 1680 it was taken over by Aurangzeb. After this the Mughals occupied it for some time after which it in 1740 with the rise of the Peshwas of Pune it went to them. It remained under the command of killedar(garrison commander) Anantrao until a colonel Prother won the fort and established the rule of the British East India Company there in 1818.





Arnala Fort is built on a small island of the port town of Arnala, located around 8 miles north of Vasai, Maharastra, India . Being an island fort, it is also called Jaldurg or Janjire-Arnala. The Portuguese, who owned this fort ,rebuilt and gave it the name Ilha das vacas.


In 1516, a local chieftain in Gujarat, Sultan Mahmud Begda originally constructed the fort on the island, strategically located at the mouth of the Vaitarna river. In the 1530s, the Portuguese had established their operations in the coastal area headquartered at Fort Bassein and soon gained control of the island. The Portuguese captain of Bassein donated the island to a Portuguese nobleman who tore down the old fort and began construction of 700x700 foot fort. Though fort was never completed by the nobleman, it remained under Portuguese control for 2 centuries, who used it to control shipping and navigation along the northern Konkan coast.
During the late 1600s and early 1700s, after a long struggle with the Mughal Empire, the Maratha Confederacy came to dominate present day Maharastra. In 1737 the then Peshwa Baji Rao I sent his brother, Chimaji Appa, to take the Bassein Fort from the Portuguese. After winning the Battle of Vasai, his general, Shankarji Pant, persuaded Chimaji to launch an assault on Fort Arnala, for its strategic importance to the Maratha navy in assaulting Portuguese interests. Their first assault, coordinated with a Maratha naval force commanded by Manaji Agre, was routed by a superior Portuguese naval force. A second assault on the fort on March 28, 1737, caught the Portuguese by surprise and forced them to abandon the fort. The victory was commemorated by a plaque installed on the northern wall of the fort and is still visible today. Marathas then rebuilt the fort, constructing three bastions Bahirav, Bhavani and Bava.
The Marathas controlled the fort until 1817 when, during the third British-Maratha war, despite successfully defending the fort, they were forced to surrender the fort to the British due to their superior naval power. The Arnala and Bassien forts were returned to the Marathas by the British in the treaty of Salabai, but the forts again changed hands under the treaty of Pune. Today the fort is in a state of disrepair

Aquatint published by R. Cribb in 1803 and part of King George III's Topographical Collection, with a view from above of the seven islands which initially made up the settlement of Bombay (now Mumbai), together with Salsette Island. The islands, located in the Arabian sea on the west coast of India, originally contained small fishing villages of the Koli community. The Sultans of Gujarat ceded the site to the Portuguese in 1534 and they established a trading post. Bombay was passed to the English Crown in 1661 as part of the dowry when Charles II married Catherine of Braganza. At first the settlement appeared unfavourable, with low lying marshes, a hot climate and heavy monsoon rains, but its natural harbour and strategic location led the English to embark on a programme of developing it

Tower of Silence, Bombay

THE SECOND SHOP FROM CORNER IS 'BOMBAY TIMES1859: Bombay Standard and Chronicle of Western India merges into The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce to form Bombay Times & Standard --NOW KNOWN AS TIMES OF INDIA NEWSPAPER'[A PALANQUIN IS PARKED IN FRONT OF THE OFFICE ,ALSO A BRIDLED HORSE


By gone days in India--0dewauoft#page/n11/mode/2up


History Of National Flag

Evolution of the Tricolour

    It is really amazing to see the various changes that our National Flag went through since its first inception. It was discovered or recognised during our national struggle for freedom. The evolution of the Indian National Flag sailed through many vicissitudes to arrive at what it is today. In one way it reflects the political developments in the nation. Some of the historical milestones in the evolution of our National Flag involve the following:

Unofficial flag of India in 1906

     The first national flag in India is said to have been hoisted on August 7, 1906, in the Parsee Bagan Square (Green Park) in Calcutta now Kolkata. The flag was composed of three horizontal strips of red, yellow and green.

The Berlin committee flag, first raised by Bhikaiji Cama in 1907

     The second flag was hoisted in Paris by Madame Cama and her band of exiled revolutionaries in 1907 (according to some inl9OS). This was very similar to the first flag except that the top strip had only one lotus but seven stars denoting the Saptarishi. This flag was also exhibited at a socialist conference in Berlin.

The flag used during the Home Rule movement in 1917

     The third flag went up in 1917 when our political struggle had taken a definite turn. Dr. Annie Besant and Lokmanya Tilak hoisted it during the Home rule movement. This flag had five red and four green horizontal strips arranged alternately, with seven stars in the saptarishi configuration super-imposed on them. In the left-hand top corner (the pole end) was the Union Jack. There was also a white crescent and star in one corner.

The flag unofficially adopted in 1921

     During the session of the All India Congress Committee which met at Bezwada in 1921 (now Vijayawada) an Andhra youth prepared a flag and took it to Gandhiji. It was made up of two colours-red and green-representing the two major communities i.e. Hindus and Muslims. Gandhiji suggested the addition of a white strip to represent the remaining communities of India and the spinning wheel to symbolise progress of the Nation.

The flag adopted in 1931. This flag was also the battle ensign of the Indian National Army

     The year 1931 was a landmark in the history of the flag. A resolution was passed adopting a tricolor flag as our national flag. This flag, the forbear of the present one, was saffron, white and green with Mahatma Gandhi's spinning wheel at the center. It was, however, clearly stated that it bore no communal significance and was to be interpreted thus.

The present Tricolour flag of India

     On July 22, 1947, the Constituent Assembly adopted it as Free India National Flag. After the advent of Independence, the colours and their significance remained the same. Only the Dharma Charkha of Emperor Asoka was adopted in place of the spinning wheel as the emblem on the flag. Thus, the tricolour flag of the Congress Party eventually became the tricolour flag of Independent India.
The flag that was first hoisted on August 7, 1906, at the Parsee Bagan Square in Calcutta.
Called the 'Saptarishi Flag', this was hoisted in Stuttgart at the International Socialist Congress held on August 22, 1907.
Associated with the names of Dr. Annie Besant and Lokmanya Tilak, this flag was hoisted at the Congress session in Calcutta during the 'Home Rule Movement'.
In the year 1921, a young man from Andhra presented this flag to Gandhiji for approval. It was only after Gandhiji's suggestion that the white strip and the charkha were added.
This flag was suggested during the All India Congress Committee session in 1931. However, the Committee's suggestion was not approved.
On August 6, 1931, the Indian National Congress formally adopted this flag, which was first hoisted on August 31.
Indian National Flag, which was born on July 22, 1947, with Nehruji's words, "Now I present to you not only the Resolution, but the Flag itself". This flag was first hoisted at the Council House on August 15, 1947.


India’s flag is a tricolor standard, with bands of saffron, white, and dark green. The saffron represents courage, sacrifice, patriotism, and renunciation. It is also the color of the Hindu people. The green stands for faith, fertility and the land; it is the color of the Islam religion. The white is in the center, symbolizing the hope for unity and peace. In the center of the white band is a blue wheel with 24 spokes. This is the Ashoka Chakra (or “Wheel of Law”). The Chakra represents the continuing progress of the nation and the importance of justice in life. It also appears on the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka “

Madame Bhikaiji Cama (1861-1936) our radical firebrand, was exiled from India and Britain and lived in France. Bhikaiji was a tireless propagandist for Indian Independence

Called the ‘Saptarishi Flag’, this was hoisted in Stuttgart at the International Socialist Congress held on August 22, 1907
PPT - History of Indian Flag PowerPoint Presentation, free download -  ID:1291827
Indian Flag PowerPoint Presentation ...
Associated with the names of Dr. Annie Besant and Lokmanya Tilak, this flag was hoisted at the Congress session in Calcutta during the ‘Home Rule Movement’. 
PPT - History of Indian Flag PowerPoint Presentation, free download -  ID:12918271024 × 768SlideServe 
In the year 1921, a young man from Andhra presented this flag to Gandhiji for approval. It was only after Gandhiji’s suggestion that the white strip and the charkha were added. 
The Calcutta Flag

The Calcutta flag was one of the first unofficial flags of India. It was designed by Sachindra Prasad Bose and Hemchandra Kanungo and unfurled on 7 August 1906 at Parsi Bagan Square (Grish Park), Calcutta.[1]

The flag had three horizontal bands of equal width with the top being orange, the centre yellow and the bottom green in colour. It had eight half-opened lotus flowers on the top stripe representing the eight provinces of India and a picture of the sun and a crescent moon on the bottom stripe. वन्दे मातरम् (Vande Mataram, meaning "I do homage to the mother") was inscribed in the center in Devanagari.

See also

The flag that was first hoisted on August 7, 1906, at the Parsee Bagan Square in Calcutta.

1913The Ghadar Party Flag

The Ghadar Party flag was also used in the United States as a symbol for India for a short period of time.In August 1913, Southasian farmworkers and students (primarily Punjabi migrants) gathered in Stockton, California, to form the Ghadar Party. They were angry at British imperialism, but also frustrated with the Indian National Congress. ‘Freedom will not come through supplication,’ their poets sang. ‘Political power will not come by appeal/ Don’t offer cowardly petitions/ Lift up the sword, they will not remain/ What have your petitions wrought?/ Brutal foreigners have plundered our homeland.’ The sentiment of complete independence thus came almost two decades before the Congress took it to heart. ‘Nation after nation are ready to rise up,’ the Ghadar Party’s newspaper proclaimed in July 1914. ‘Your voice has reached China, Japan, Manila, Sumatra, Fiji, Java, Singapore, Egypt, Paris, South Africa, South America, East Africa and Panama.’
IN 1917…..
The Home Rule Bal Ganga Dhar Tilak adopted a new flag in 1917. The flag had union jack at the top, near hoist. The rest of the flag contains five red and four green strips.
It had seven stars on it in the shape of “Saptarishi” Constellation which is sacred one for Hindus. It also had a crescent moon, star at the top fly end. This flag didn’t become popular in masses.

IN 1921…..As Mahatma Gandhi communities of India to be represented in the flag of the nation, so a new flag was designed. At the top was white then green and at the bottom was red color. In this flag white symbolized minority communities of India, green was for Muslims and the red one was for Hindu and Sikh communities. The “Charkha” was drawn across all the bands symbolizing the unification of these communities.IN 1931……Some people were not at all happy with the communal interpretation of the flag. Keeping all this in a view a new flag was designed. This color signified combined spirit of Hindu yogis as well as Muslim dervish. In another flag by Pingali Venkayya had three color. Saffron was at the top Followed by white in the middle and green being the lowermost. The “Charkha” was at the center of white color. This flag was passed at the meeting of Congress Committee in 1931 and was adopted as the official flag of the Committee.

1942 1945[subhas chandra bose with Indian soldiers of 'Azad Hind'-IN SINGAPORE]

IN 1947…..

When India got independence, a committee headed by Rajinder Prasad was formed to discuss the National Flag of India and they decided to adopt the flag of Indian National Congress with suitable modifications as the flag of India. As a result the flag of 1931 was adopted as Indian flag but “Charkha” in the middle was replaced by “Chakra” (wheel) and hence our national Flag came into being.

The Indian National Flag came into being in its present form at the meeting of Constitutional Assembly on 22nd July 1947.

Pandit Nehru introduced the Indian National Flag in the Constituent Assembly on 22nd

 July 1947, he said,  “ … this flag that I have the honour to present you is not, I hope and trust, a flag of the dominion over anybody, but a flag of freedom not only for ourselves, but a symbol of freedom for all people who may see it. And wherever it may go – and I hope it will go far- not only where Indians dwell as our ambassadors and ministers but across the far seas where it may be carried by the Indian ships, wherever it may go, it will bring a message of  comradeship, a message that India wants to be friend with every country of the world and India wants to help any people who seek freedom. That hope will be the message of this flag everywhere…”.

[Red Ensign was established as the proper colours for the British ships by a proclamation in 1674. The Merchant Shipping Act of 1894 brought up to date the law concerning the wearing of ensigns by British ships. Prior to this many ensigns of various designs were in use.]

 New Purna Swaraj (Total Independence) Flag: 1931-1947

The new Purna Swaraj Flag immediately acquired irresistible power, it betokened fearlessness and faith amongst the Freedom fighters in their ultimate victory in gaining Independence in 1947.

 The Patriotic cover shows the effigy of Mahatma Gandhiflanked by the new Tricolour flags and the legend ‘Vande Mataram’ in Tamil.The envelope is chopped with Japanese censored mark and was postally carried in Malaya then under Japanese occupation during World War II (Postage stamps were duly affixed at the back) 
  “Kumaran's Hand Holding the Flag” Postmark fromTirupur issued on August 15, 1997 commemorating the 50th. Anniversary. of Independence  
  Kodi Kaatha Kumaran (1904 - 1932)
Kumaran - The protector of the Flag, on January 10, 1932, Kodi Kaatha Kumaran, a brave young mill-hand of Tirupur, Madras (now Tamil Nadu) was leading a labour resistance procession holding the tricolour in his hand, when police attacked Kumaran brutally he exhibited an exemplary act of defiance against the British violence by holding the Tricolourup while raising the freedom cry ‘Vande Matarm’. Kumaran succumbed to his  injuries next day. 

 Sanjiva Nijalingappa actively participated and courted arrest in the 'Flag Satyagraha' organised by the Mysore Congress in April 1938 at Shivapura near Maddur, Karnataka. 
 On August 8, 1942 Mahatma Gandhi gave the historic call “Quit India” in Bombay and raised the slogan “Do or Die” for the cause. 
 On August 9, following the arrest of most of the prominent leaders, Aruna Asaf Ali came forward and hoisted the National Flag at Gowalia Tank Maidan (Renamed, August Kranti Maidan) in Bombay (now Mumbai).
 Matangini Hazra was an active participant of the Quit India Movement at the age of 73. On 29th. Sept, 1942 while she was leading a procession in Tamluk, Bengal and advanced with the Tricolour flag in her hands, a shower of bullets from the police felled her, but the flag was still flying in her hands unsullied. 
 The August Kranti at Ballia,under the leadership of Chittu Pandey was an inspiring chapter of the “Quit India” Movement 
 The bronze sculpture (by D. P. Roychoudhury) depicts theseven students who lost their lives while attempting to hoist the flag atop old Patna Secretariat building during Quit India Movement. The seven students, who's names are engraved on Martyrs’ Memorial, Patna.;* Umakant Prasad Sinha - Ram Mohan Roy Seminary, class IX * Ramanand Singh - Ram Mohan Roy Seminary, class IX * Satish Prasad Jha - Patna Collegiate School, class X * Jalpati Kumar - Bihar National College, 2nd year * Devipada Choudhry - Miller High English School, class IX * Rajendra Singh - Patna High English School, matric class * Ramgovind Singh - Punpun High English School, matric class.


 Some more interesting items onSwaraj flag (1921-1931)(from the collection ofSri G. Biswas of Kolkata)

The Flag Committee -1931 headed by Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramyya after going through various suggestions as received from various sources came up with an entirely new design, allSaffron Flag charged with a brown Charkha at 
the top left corner (canton) of the flag. The Flag design recommended by the Flag Committee failed to create any consensus amongst the Congress members in general and Muslims members in particular. The proposed flag was summarily rejected by the Congress Working Committee for the reason that the flag design interfered too much with the flag. As a result the all Saffron Flag never saw the light of day.  


BANK OF BOMBAY Banknotes, 1846-66 ISSUES

BANK OF BOMBAY Banknotes, 1846-66 ISSUES


GBR rule 1765 - 1946

Private Bank Issues - Bank of Bombay

P.S100, J.1.1.1  10 Rupees 14.8.184x
Bombay Issue  Back
P.S100, J.1.1.1  10 Rupees 10.10.1856
Bombay Issue
Back of back PROOF  RK
Notation: "Patent Hardened Steel Plate" below text
P.S101P  15 Rupees PROOF back  RK
Printer: Perkins, Bacon & Petch, London
P.S102 - P.S105  25 - 1,000 Rupees 1846-53 Images Needed
P.S110  10 Rupees 1.11.1860   NS


       Dr Kitchener's Curry Powder--1800's

East India Company 1

William Kitchiner

Detail of a Portrait
Died1827 (aged 51–52)
Known forCook's Oracle, creator of Wow-Wow sauce
I was leafing through a paperback copy of the original 1861 edition of Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management (Oxford World's Classics) and came across her recipe for Indian Curry-Powder, founded on Dr Kitchener's Recipe.  William Kitchiner (1775?-1827) was the author of the Apicus Redivivus, The Cook's Oracle, first published in 1817.
I'm quite fond of these historic Anglo-Indian curry powders; the sort of thing we chuck into stews and then have the nerve to call "curry".  Here's my version of Dr Kitchener's curry powder, as described by Mrs Beeton.  I've slightly adapted it for the modern kitchen and added cardamom and black pepper.
Add the following ingredients to a mixing bowl: two teaspoons of powdered turmeric, two teaspoons ofpowdered cinammon,  two teaspoons of powdered ginger, two teaspoons of powdered fenugreek, a dash of cayenne pepper and a good grinding of black pepper.  Mix them up so they form a powder.
In a pestle and mortar, grind up the following ingredients until they form a fine powder: two teaspoons of coriander seeds, two teaspoons ofmustard seeds, and a few cardamom pods. (You will have to discard the cardamom's outer shells).  I love grinding up spices: all those lovely, aromatic smells. When you reckon the ingredients are ready, mix them in with the other spices.  
Keep the finished curry powder in an air-tight container. It should keep reasonably well. Obviously, if you want to make more of the stuff, you will need to increase the quantities. Half the fun of this sort of thing is to play around with the proportions, to suit your own tastes. Secret recipes and all that.

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